2012, Vol. 23. #3-4

 

 

THEORETICAL ISSUES OF ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOCENOLOGY / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ ЕКОЛОГІЇ ТА БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЇ

 

Бурда Р. И., Петрович О. З. Экотонный эффект лесных полезащитных полос в Причерноморских разнотравно-типчаково-ковыльных степях

Burda R. I., Petrovych O. Z. The ecotone effect of forest shelter belts at the Near-Black Sea herbal-fescue-feathergrass steppe

 

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The 22 forest shelter belts with the total length of 31 km, the total area of 73 ha and the light intensity under the tree canopy of 7–46 % have been studied. The ecotone effect has appeared in the taxonomic diversity of these polycoenomorphic amphicoenoses: 223 species from 161 genera and 51 families (31 % of the nearest elementary flora of the national nature park «Buhskyi Gard»). Steppe life form species (46 %) and synanthropic species (36 %) were prevailing, forest species held 11 %. Forest shelter belts in the steppe zone are the complex natural-anthropogenic amphicoenosis with weak functional relations. The share of alien species in forest shelter belts was almost twice higher than the average for Ukraine (34 % versus 14–16 %), but significantly lower that in agrophytocoenoses (54 %). The concept of forest shelter belt in steppe as an anthropogenic ecotone is substantiated. Ecosystem services of it involve the conservation of plant diversity, including the species of «The Red List of Ukraine»: Astragalus dasyanthus Pall., Оrnithogalum boucheanum (Kunth) Aschers., Stipa capillata L., S. lessingiana Trin et Rupr., and some of the plant associations belonging to «The Green List of Ukraine».

Key words: amphicoenoses, coenotic form, ecotone effect, forest shelter belt, life form, plant diversity, Mykolayiv region, Ukraine
 

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FOREST BIOGEOCENOLOGY / ЛІСОВА БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ

 

Парпан Т. В. Механізми і теорії лісових сукцесій та їх використання для побудови математично-екологічних моделей

Parpan T. V. Mechanisms and theory of forest succession, their use for the construction of mathematical-ecological models

 

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The main mechanisms of succession from the viewpoint of forest ecology are considered. The basic theory of succession as a basis for development of quantitative mathematical and ecological succession models are analyzed.

Key words: mechanisms of succession, succession theory, dynamic environmental computer models
 

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ECOLOGICAL MICROMORPHOLOGY OF FOREST SOIL / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА МІКРОМОРФОЛОГІЯ ЛІСОВИХ ҐРУНТІВ

 

Стрижак О. В. Еколого-мікроморфологічна характеристика аренних борових біогеоценозів р. Самари

Strizhak O. V. Ecological and micromorphological characteristic of pine forest biogeocenosis r. Samara

 

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The micromorphological features of pine forest soils were found out. The basic environmental factors that cause these features are: hydrological regime, microrelief, texture of soil, plant phytocenosis. New formations in soil were studied on the macro-meso-and micro levels. The chemical composition of these new formations was ascertained through microanalysis.

Key words: microstructure, ecological factors, microanalysis, surface relief
 

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ukr
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ECOLOGICAL HYDROLOGY / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА ГІДРОЛОГІЯ

 

Ray J. G., Krishnan J., Unni S., Shobha V. Nutrients, productivity and pollution of Periyar lake, Kerala, India

Дж. Г. Рей, Дж. Крішнан, С. Юнні, В. Шобха Поживні речовини, продуктивність та забруднення озера Періяр, Керала, Індія

 

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Three-year monitoring of the pollution status of a commercially exploited tropical freshwater reservoir, Periyar Lake, Thekkady, Kerala, India situated central to a world famous wildlife sanctuary, the Periyar Tiger Reserve included monthly assessment of nitrate nitrogen, Kjeldal nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, silica; primary and secondary production, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, maximum probable number of Coliform bacteria, count of Escherichia coli, pesticide and heavy metal content in the waters. For convenient and systematic studies six permanent sampling stations were fixed in the Lake in accordance with differences in degrees of human interactions within different parts of the Lake. In spite of the increasing anthropogenic influences, the nutrient concentration and primary productivity in the hundred years over artificial Lake remained quite normal in most part of it during the entire period of study, owing to its undisturbed watershed. This suggested the setting up of wildlife sanctuaries around reservoirs as effective watershed management method of commercially exploited lake systems in tropics in general. However, statistically significant fluctuations in certain quality parameters at certain locations and the high amount of oil content found in the lake, suggested the need of careful management and proper monitoring of such systems. Oil spill from motor boats in the lake was found extended throughout the Lake, even up to the core of the sanctuary area. Coliform bacteria count was high at all stations during most of the seasons.

Key words: Periyar Lake, Nutrients, primary production, pollution, oil and grease, seasonal changes
 

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ECOLOGICAL ZOOLOGY / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА ЗООЛОГІЯ

 

Гавриленко В. С., Листопадський М. А. Дендрофільна орнітофауна: питання термінології та екологічної класифікації (на прикладі орнітофауни Біосферного заповідника «Асканія-Нова»)

Havrylenko V. S., Lystopadskiy M. A. Dendrophilous avifauna: issues of terminology and environmental classification (on the example of the avifauna of the Biosphere reserve «Askania-Nova»)

 

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The article presents a critical analysis of the language and different interpretations of the term «dendrophil» and in particular «dendrophilous avifauna». It is suggested to distinguish obligate and facultative group of dendrophilous species. The system of generalizations of existing concepts has been given. As an example of the modern avifauna of the biosphere reserve «Askania-Nova» the dendrophilous component of the system has been defined

Key words: dendrophil, dendrobiont, avifauna, faunistic complex, immoral, life form, ecomorph, biomorph
 

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ukr
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SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION / СОЦІАЛЬНІ ТА ЕКОНОМІЧНІ АСПЕКТИ ОХОРОНИ НАВКОЛИШНЬОГО СЕРЕДОВИЩА ЛЮДИНИ

 

Довгалюк И. Г. Гениальный естествоиспытатель, эколог и почвовед (К 130-летию со дня рождения Н. Г. Холодного)

Dovgaluk I. G. The naturalist of genius, ecologist and soil scientist (To the 130th anniversary of the birth of N. G. Kholodny)

 

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The paper is devoted to the life activity of outstanding naturalist Nicholay Grigoryevich Kholodny who managed to disclose in his scientific work all five components of biogeosenosis, the influence of numerous factors of environment on self-regulation, stability and comprehensive development processes.

Key words: naturalist, ecologist, soil scientist
 

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Каратаевская О. Н. Социальная среда и ее влияние на природоохранную деятельность человека

Karataevskaya O. N. Social environment and its influence on human nature conservation activity

 

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In the paper the social and aesthetic aspects of human nature conservation activity are examined. The analysis of domestic and foreign naturalists’ works in terms of their relationship to the aesthetics is given. Some peculiarities of nature protection fund area, surrounding people, are presented

Key words: social environment, aesthetics, human nature conservation activity
 

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ukr
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Денисенко А. С. Экономические аспекты реализации программы «Плодородие почв» в условиях степной зоны Украины


Denisenko A. S. Economic aspects of realization of a program «Soil fertility» in the steppe zone of Ukraine

 

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The basic economic aspects of realization of the program «Soil fertility» in the steppe zone of Ukraine are considered. The urgent need to preserve and restore the forest shelter belts in the steppe condition is indicated. They have a beneficial effect on soil fertility and yield of agricultural plants. The current state of the soil cover in the steppe zone of Ukraine is analyzed

Key words: economic aspects, soil fertility, forest shelter belts, the steppe zone of Ukraine
 

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DISCUSSIONS / ДИСКУСІЇ

 

Акимов И. А., Корж О. П. Человек как один из компонентов биосферы

Akimov I. A., Korzh A. P. Man as a component of the biosphere

 

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Differences of anthropogenic factors from others are mostly quantitative, not qualitative. More appropriate to talk about changes in the conditions of existence of the organism as a result of action of anthropogenic factors. The most common result of human activity is the restructuring of the living matter of our planet. But the world does not remain constant even in the absence of human factor. From the standpoint of humanity, the most dangerous result of this process can be a qualitative change in the general parameters of the biosphere that may be unacceptable for our future existence. At the same time, there is no returning to the previous state of both our society and the biosphere as a whole. Our first task is to find the ways to optimize and harmonize the interaction with nature for a smooth extension of their habitat carrying capacity, which is impossible without changing of our views on the world.

Key words: anthropogenic factor, artificial, natural, world view, biosphere, living substance
 

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SHORT MESSANGERS / КОРОТКІ ПОВІДОМЛЕННЯ

 

Matsyura A. V., Matsyura M. V. Spatial distribution of the colonially breeding Laridae on the islands of the Azov-Black Sea region of the Ukraine


Мацюра А. В., Мацюра М. В. Просторовий розподіл колоніальних сивкоподібних, що гніздяться на островах Азово-Чорноморського регіону України

 

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The analysis of the main factors, which specify the spreading of colonial Laridae to the islands of Azov and Black Sea region, is presented. The influence of the anthropogenic pressure and the interspecific interrelations on the island bird communities is considered. The basic directions of anthropogenic influence on island birds were determined. The analysis of mutual breeding of island birds was performed

Key words: island, bird communities, anthropogenic pressure, interspecific interrelations, analysis
 

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ukr
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Парпан В. І., Олійник М. П. Адвентивна фракція синантропної флори перелогових екосистем Придністровського Поділля

Parpan V. I., Olijnyk M. P. The alien fraction of the urban flora of the Prednistrovian Podillya old-field ecosystems

 

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The characteristics of the alien fraction of synanthropic flora of the Prednistrovian Podillya old-field ecosystems is provided. It counts 44 species of the vascular plants, belonging to 39 genera and 13 families. Among the fraction of the adventive species of the old-fields, due to the time of chronicling criterion, archeophytes of 27 species prevail (61,4 %) and due to the naturalization level criterion – 29 species of epekophytes prevail (65,9 %).

Key words: : flora, arheophytes, kenophytes
 

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Ивашов А. В., Симчук А. П., Гюрбуз М. Ф. Межвидовая дифференциация трофических ниш паразитов зеленой дубовой листовертки в индивидуальных консорциях дуба в Крыму

Ivashov A. V., Simchuk A. P., Gurbuz M. F. Interspecific trophic niche differentiation among parasitoids of oak leaf-roller moth in the individual consortium of oaks in Crimea

 

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Trophic niche partitioning among five most common oak leaf roller (Tortrix viridana L.) parasites was established in respect of the pupal weights of host moths on three studied pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd). The most common parasitoid species, such as Itoplectis maculator F. and Phaeogenes invisor Thunb., demonstrated stable in space and time trophic preferences

Key words: trophic niche, competition, community structure
 

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Узбек І. Х. Чисельність мікроорганізмів в товщі техноземів як екологічний фактор

Uzbek I. Kh. The quantity of microorganisms in the technozem stratum as an ecological factor

 

 

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The cyclic of total quantity of microorganisms dynamic is determined. The largest quantity of them is observed in spring. Further on a quantity of microorganisms decreases and has fluctuation character. Phytocenoses contributes to increase the amount of microorganisms in the top stratums of edaphotops and stabilize the microbal association constructions in accordance to physico-chemical properties of these edaphotops

Key words: anthropogenic landscape, reclamation, disturbed land,s edaphotops, microorganisms
 

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