2016, Vol. 27. #1-2


THEORETICAL ISSUES OF ECOLOGY / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ ЕКОЛОГІЇ


Protasov A. A. Biogeomes of hydrosphere and land as elements of the biosphere structure

Протасов О. О. Біогеоми гідросфери і суходолу як елементи структури біосфери               

DOI:10.15421/031601

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Ecosystems as the smallest unit in the structure of the biosphere form natural groups with similar nonliving or inert components (geome) and leaving, biotic (biome) as a result of the ecological convergence. Thus it is formed following after ecosystem level structure of the biosphere – biogeomes or complexes of similar in its structure and function ecosystems. It is proposed unit classification of 12 biogeomes of hydrosphere and land, combining with three types of ecosystems: biotic, oligobiotic and subbiotic types. The biotic type combine with ecosystems controlled by leaving components as well as woody vegetation or hermatypic corrals.

The ecosystems of oligobiotic type have strong impact of abiotic factors but biotic ones are important too. It is grass ecosystems on the land, and shelf ecosystems of ocean. In subbiotic type of ecosystems strongly prevail in its habitus abiotic components. It is ecosystems of deserts, and ocean deep bottom or pelagic ocean ecosystems. The evolution of biosphere was lead as well as to new local ecosystems divergently and convergently to formation limit number of ecosystems types, biogeomes. There is reason to believe it possible to form a new scientific section – biogeomics because there is a particular object of it study – the biogeome.

Key words: biosphere, noosphere, ecosystem, biogeom, biosferomeron, evolution
 

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Pomohaibo V. M., Orlova L. D., Vlasenko N. A. Environmental DNA: ecological and genetic aspects

Помогайбо В. М., Орлова Л. Д., Власенко Н. О. ДНК оточуючого середовища: екологічний та генетичний аспекти

DOI: 10.15421/031602

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Attention to environmental DNA (eDNA) was motivated by problem of undesirable gene transfer possibility from genetically modified plants to wild bacteria and other organisms. First studies have already examined persistence of DNA from these plants in soil, and also in the samples of nearby groundwater and river for a few kilometers from the place of cultivating. In soil it persists long time enough – from a few days to a few years, and in water – from a few hours to a few days.

eDNA excreted from different sources – frozen ice cores, sediments of lakes, soil, caves, water of lakes, rivers and oceans, contains genetic information about biodiversity of present and ancient organisms. Researches revealed an important fact: data of eDNA and other sources, for example pollen, macrofossils, living animals and plants, complement each other, showing more reliable information about the variety of species, than used separately. Therefore the analysis eDNA needs to be not of considered alternative method of ecological researches, but an additional to traditional methods

In the process of study of eDNA it is necessary to take into account five aspects at least: its origin, physical state, conversion, transport and technical challenges. The origin of eDNA remains studied not enough. From a few publications it is known that eDNA comes in different composition excretions, leaves, hair, peeling etc., or as a result of released plasmids and chromosomal DNA from living prokaryotes. There are also possible secondary sources of eDNA – dead bodies and excretions of predators, scavengers, detritivores and coprovores. On the amount of the genetic material, released by organisms in an environment, various ontogenetic, trophic and other factors can have considerably influence. eDNA can be presented in both intracellular and extracellular forms.. Over time intracellular eDNA releases outside by influence of different ecological factors – activity of microorganisms, presence of extracellular enzymes, mechanical destruction etc. In further extracellular eDNA can break in corpuscles of different sizes – mainly within the limits of 1–10 μm. It can be free, adsorbed by other substances or dissolved.

At certain conditions the period of eDNA persistence can be very great – from a few hours (in water) to hundred thousands of years (in frozen ice cores). Ancient eDNA is very fragmented and chemically changed by various physical, chemical and biological factors of environment. Substantive eDNA amount is taken up by bacteria and protozoa. Here it quickly metabolizes, but some its fragments can be integrated in a local genome. eDNA is able to be transported to great distance (from a few meters to 10 kilometers) that can appreciably influence on the results of its research. Also the laboratory experiment has certain problems – design (equipment, sequence of operations and condition of it realization), realization of experiment, authenticity of it will depend on quality of equipment and reagents, competence and honesty of scientific personnel etc.), ability of skilled researcher to give interpretation of results Data that given in our review testifies that the active study of eDNA only began, and further intensive efforts of environmentalists and geneticists are needed in direction of it research. The results of such researches will allow to create the effective methods of scientifically reasonable recreating nature application.
Key words: environmental DNA (eDNA), persistence of eDNA, ancient and present biodiversity
 

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BIOGEOCENOLOGY, GEOBOTANY AND PHYTOCENOLOGY / БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ, ГЕОБОТАНІКА ТА ФІТОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ


Kozak I. I., Parpan T. V., Kozak G. G., Kotsyuba P. G. Prognosis of beech stand dynamics in climate change conditions in Polish Bieszady and Ukrainian Beskydy

Козак І. І., Парпан Т. В., Козак Г. Г., Koцюба П. Г. Прогноз динаміки букових деревостанів за умови зміни клімату в Польських Бещадах і Українських Бескидах

DOI: 10.15421/031603

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The study concerned forecasts for the dynamics of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands in the Polish Bieszczady and Ukrainian Beskydy with the use of FORKOME model іn different scenarios of climate changes. Simulation conducted in FORKOME model confirms that beech will exist in the Polish Bieszczady and Ukrainian Beskydy regions on the east boundary of beech areal. The changes in the Polish Bieszczady and Ukrainian Beskydy can be estimate as a positive for forest productivity and biomass accumulations. They were confirmed by fieldwork and events documented in the literature, which shows the reliability of the forecasts used FORKOME computer model. Work and study of this kind are necessary for rational forest management and to take appropriate development strategies.

Key words: simulation, computer, modeling, forest, temperature, precipitation
 

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Kovalenko I. N. Reproduction in plants of grass and subshrub layer as a factor of the forest ecosystem stabilization

Коваленко І. М. Репродукція у рослин трав’яно-чагарничкового ярусу як фактор стабілізації лісових екосистем 

DOI: 10.15421/031604

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Reproduction in a broad sense is the process by which female parents generate some or other germs (diasporas) able to form new individuals that are genetically similar to the female parents. The two main types of reproduction are found in forest grasses and subshrubs: seed (or by spores in spore-bearing plants) and vegetative. The establishment of features of plan reproduction of grass and subshrub layer is an important scientific issue in the context of the preservation and restoration of forest ecosystems, because plants of grass and subshrub layer have a significant impact on the initial stages of natural regeneration of plants of the first layer. Some features of reproduction of plants of different layers of forest ecosystems – from grass to woody – have been studied on the basis of our own observations and literature data. The observations were carried out on the territory of Desnyansko-Starogutsky National Nature Park and the adjacent territories.

Forest ecosystems of the north-east of Ukraine have been in active use for a long time. Currently, these forests, in part, have obtained conservation status, and the volume of logging has been sharply reduced. Therefore, the majority of forests are characterized by the progressive succession, during which the proportion of plant silvan species increases and, consequently, the number of motile vegetative plant species increases in the lower layers of forest. The eight plant species of grass and subshrub layer, such as Aegopodium podagraria L., Asarum europaeum L., Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Carex pilosa Scop., Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench., Stellaria holostea L. Vaccinium myrtillus L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., have been selected as models. It is established that the capacity for vegetative propagation and clone formation is an important feature of reproduction of most forest grasses. The key parameters of generative reproduction of clone forming plants of grass and subshrub layer and their dependence on the ecological and coenotic factors have been shown as well. To establish the level of reproduction the following morphometric parameters were determined: weight of generative organs (g), number of generative shoots (pieces), reproductive effort (%), share of generative individuals in the population (%). In case of generative reproduction, an important biological characteristic is the so-called reproductive effort, which characterizes the contribution of organic matters and energy in the reproductive process. It is typically shown as the percentage of phytomass of the reproductive structures of the total phytomass. In general, generativity of the investigated plants of grass and subshrub layer was determined by the ecological and cenotic conditions, and therefore varied from association to association. Forest grasses and subshrubs, in turn, are an important factor for regeneration of all types of woody species in forest ecosystems. Depending on the composition and abundance of plants of grass and subshrub layer, the number of seedlings and little undergrowth of all woody species of trees is reduced in varying degrees, and the indicators of their growth are getting worse. The impact of the live ground cover on undergrowth of woody species is ultimately determined by the specificity of the ecological and coenotic situation in the areas of regeneration and the specific ecological and phytocoenotic properties of undergrowth of certain woody species. The main environmental problems of recreational zones from the perspective of possibilities of natural regeneration of woody species are the effect of mechanical actions on the soil. Grass and subshrub layer as a sensitive indicator of the increase in anthropogenic load is the first to undergo such transformation in recreational forests.

Under its influence its species composition varies and is depleted, distribution of certain species as well as their phytomass and projective cover decrease. Many forest species disappear from the cover, and weeds begin to grow. Protection of forests as holistic ecosystems is an important issue, being developed during the XX century, and not having lost its significance even today. The main directions of its solution are connected with the development of the ecological network of Ukraine and the proper use of all forest resources.

Key words: grass and subshrub layer, forest phytocenosis, regeneration, stabilization, propagation, reproduction, Desnyansko-Starogutsky National Nature Park
 

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Lisovets O. I. First finds of Acalypha australis L. and Euphorbia maculata L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Dnipropetrovsk region

Лісовець О. І. Перші знахідки Acalypha australis L. та Euphorbia maculata L. (Euphorbiaceae) на Дніпропетровщині 

DOI: 10.15421/031605

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A flora is a very plastic component of biovariety, especially on the urbanized territories with active development of transport, trade and different communications. From literary data on territory of Ukraine only from North America for the last 25 years about 30 new species that appeared quarantine plants got with various loads. In the flora of the Dnipropetrovsk area it is counted no less than 75 adentitious species, 102 species are cultivated and have a tendency to naturalization. In connection with the high level of urbanization the amount of adentitious and synanthropic species in a region increases constantly. Appearance of new species on any territory claims attention of researchers, in fact they can appear in a prospect dangerous for agricultural lands and natural ecosystems by reason of high competitiveness in the conditions of absence of natural wreckers.

A base method for the study of regional flora is taking the inventory of species, it meens making lists of plants as a result of rout geobotanical researches. For determination of new species we used "Flora of the USSR" (1949), consultations were conducted with the known florists. Family Euphorbiaceae Juss. according to a determinant "Opredelitel… " (1987) is presented in our country by 6 genuses and 62 species. By us it is first found on territory of the Dnipropetrovsk area two representatives of Euphorbiaceae – Acalypha australis L. and Euphorbia maculata L. Both species are educed within the limits of Bagleyskiy district of Dniprodzerzhynsk. Acalypha australis is an one-year plant with a thin root and direct ramified ribbed stem, a kind is widespread in Manchuria, Korea, north China, Japan, America, in the former USSR – on Caucasus and Far East. His characteristic habitats are sands on the banks of the rivers, the clay are washed off slopes, near-by building, on trashes, in sowing. In the determinants of Ukraine Acalypha australis is absent, however on literary information first found in 1981 in Crimea, later in Odesa and near-by Luhansk.

The population of Acalypha australis is educed on Dnipropetrovsk region to be under a supervision from 2006. First Acalypha australis was found here on a flower-garden in a private sector, where, probably, was brought with the seed of decorative plants. The quantity of individuals did not exceed two ten that grew on an area approximately one meter square. For 9 the area of population considerably increased and now presents no less than 200 м2. Shoots of Acalypha australis appears at the end of May, flowering takes place in July–August, fruiting – in August–September.

A plant is weeded as ordinary weed, however it spreads successfully. To our opinion, it is related to the unpretentiousness of new kind to the terms of fertility and moisture of soil and high enough fruitfulness – from literary data to 100 seed from one individual. The representatives of the educed population grow on flower-gardens, along a fence and building, on beds among parsley, dill, strawberry, under a vine, in a hothouse with cucumbers. The domestic breeds of birds (chickens, geese) this kind do not eat. Euphorbia maculata is one-year old plant in a 10–20 cm high, with hard hairsprings. A kind takes place from North America, it as skidding is widespread in Europe, in the former USSR – in Western Transcaucasia and on Far East. His characteristic habitats are sands on the coasts of seas, embankments along roads. On territory of Ukraine Euphorbia maculata in determinants is absent, however on literary information led for Lviv and Crimea.

The population of Euphorbia maculata on Dnipropetrovsk region was educed by us in 2010 near-by a recreation centre "Himik" (Dniprodzerzhynsk). A kind prevails on a wide sidewalk ground before a centre, sprouting on the small areas of soil between concrete flags on an area about 3000 m2. In a vegetable cover except Euphorbia maculata we discovered Polygonum aviculare L., Portulaca oleraceа L., Eragrostis minor Host. On information of workers of recreation centre "Himik", Euphorbia maculata grows here already no less than 6, thus these plants weed every summer. Existing in such terms, a kind appears very proof to trampling down and unpretentious to the food value and humidity of soil. Morphologically it is near to Polygonum aviculare and Portulaca oleraceа, from the last it easily differs by the presence of milk juice in all parts of plant. On flower-gardens and lawns that abut upon a sidewalk ground, Euphorbia maculata is not educed.

The standards of herbarium of the registered new species are kept in the Scientific herbarium of the Dnipropetrovsk national university of the name Oles Gonchar (DSU). With the purpose of prognostication of adaptation possibilities and speed of distribution on Dnipropetrovsk Oblast of Acalypha australis and Euphorbia maculata we deem it wise to undertake scalene studies of the educed populations, in particular population structure, varying of morphological indexes, germination of seed, allelopathic activity in the conditions of steppe Pridneprove.

Key words: Аcalipha australis, Euphorbia maculate, Euphorbiaceae, adventitious species, population, flora of Ukraine
 

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ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS / ЕКОСИСТЕМНИЙ АНАЛІЗ


Buzhdygan O. Y., Rudenko S. S. Multivariate comparison of trophic networks of grassland ecosystems

Буждиган O. Я., Руденко С.С. Багатофакторний порівняльний аналіз трофічних мереж лучних екосистем  

DOI: 10.15421/031606

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This article compares 13 network properties of food webs of 31 Ukrainian grasslands. The properties are: network size N, trophic link number L, trophic classes Cl, system connectance C, link density LD, total system throughflow TST, network cycling FCI, ascendency AS, developmental capacity DC, indirect effects dominance IE, system aggradation AI, system synergism SI, and mutualism MI. Our results show these properties are highly correlated and can be aggregated into the three latent factors. The first factor includes N, TST, AS, DC, SI, L, and LD, where network size N appears to be a central defining variable. The second latent factor includes FCI, AI, and Cl, and is driven by indirect effects dominance IE. The third factor includes mutualism MI and connectance C, the last being the driving variable. Network Synergism SI is negatively correlated with the other network properties, while all others are positively intercorrelated. Network connectance appears to be a scale invariant property, while link density is highly sensitive to network size. Our data also show that network mutualism MI is more tied to the network complexity than simply to system scale or number of feeding links.

Key words: ecological network analysis, trophic networks, multivariate analysis, grassland ecosystems, system-wide network properties
 

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ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCIENCE / ЕКОЛОГІЧНЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО


Samokhvalova V. L., Skrylnyk Y. V., Shedey L. О., Lopushnyak V. I., Oliynyk N. V., Samokhvalova P. A., Mandryka O. V. Forecasting the levels of trace elements and heavy metals content in soils of different genesis for the assessment of their environmental and productional functions

Самохвалова В. Л., Скрильник Є. В., Шедєй Л. О., Лопушняк В. І., Олійник Н. В., Самохвалова П. А., Мандрика О. В. Прогнозування  рівнів вмісту мікроелементів і важких металів у ґрунтах різного генезису для оцінювання їх екологічних та продукційних функцій 

DOI: 10.15421/031607

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Grounded the method for predicting of trace elements (TE) and heavy metals (HM) content in the soil system of different genesis were examined on the example of soils in different natural-climatic zones of Ukraine, contaminated soils in Kharkiv, Donetsk and Lugansk regions, and intensive fertilizer (organo-mineral, organic and mineral system of fertilizers) of soils in Kiev, Kharkiv, Poltava and Lviv region. In the developed methodical approach by using the parameters indicators of the energy state of the soil (calorific value of humus, the reserves of energy in the soil layer of 0–20 cm) using mathematical models and the spread of the algorithm of the method on other soil types of a particular natural-climatic zone in the conditions of technogenic pollution and technological load is predicted the TE and/or HM content in soils of different types, which ensures the rapidity of the assessment and improve the accuracy of the trace element status prediction, energy and humus state of soils of different genesis with the identification of soils ecological differences to predict their quality by assessment of ecological functions for the ranking of energy intensity indicators of the soil.

Scientific elaboration of a method for predicting levels of chemical elements in soils of different types on the natural environment, the effects of man-made pollution and technological load, should be used in the environmental regulation of the TE content and normalization of loads (technogenic, technological) on the soil system, agroecology on issues of organic farming, bioenergy and energy of soil formation; diagnosis, estimation, prediction of humus quality and the of TE status and the danger of excessive accumulation of HM in the soil for indicators of the energy state; the effective environmental management of soils as in natural conditions, and the influence of various anthropogenic factors, taking into account their ecological functions; in research practice – for system research of natural components of the biosphere, the assessment of carbon sequestration in soils and assess of their quality. Distinctive features and advantages of the proposed elaboration in comparison with known methods and approaches are: greater predictability of energy and trace element status, humus and ecological state of the soil as a whole to prevent the degradation of soil organic matter and reduction of risks of influence of HM technogenic pollution; rapidity of obtaining and improving the accuracy of the predictions of the HM and TE content in the soil; universality way to suitability of the method for all soil types in different climatic zones; stimulating further research in the field of energy of soil formation and solution of practical tasks of conservation and restoration of soils functions, identification optimal energy cost and taking into account the ecological functions of soil certain type.

Key words: soil, trace elements, heavy metals, energy capacity, calorific value of humus, the reserves of energy in the layer 0–20 cm, industrial pollution, technological load, method, prediction
 

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ECOLOGY AND SPACE / ЕКОЛОГІЯ ТА КОСМОС


Mozgovoy D. K. Monitoring of the droughts consequence by high resolution satellite images

Мозговой Д. К. Мониторинг последствий засухи по спутниковым снимкам высокого пространственного разрешения

DOI: 10.15421/031608

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The State of California is one of the least abundant with fresh water in the United States, while having high water consumption – the drought in the state has reached catastrophic proportions. January 2015 was the driest month in California for the whole period of observations since 1895. Two thirds of the state's population depend on the centralized water supply – about 25 million people and more than 400 thousand hectares of agricultural land.

The level of ground waters and the snow cover have become record low – this can be explained by pumping groundwater out for irrigation of agricultural land. The water level in the reservoirs of California is close to the critical notch. State authorities are forced to tighten measures to save water, the supply of which is sometimes insufficient to satisfy the priority needs of citizens. The solution of the problem of rational use and protection of water resources can only be based on an integrated systemic approach to the study of spatial and temporal patterns of natural and anthropogenic factors on the quality and quantity of surface water with the use of satellite and ground data. In the study of the water regime of land one of the most important input parameters of hydrological models is the surface area of the reservoirs.

Regular receiving of information about this parameter with the use of ground data is challenging and labor intensive. Using satellite data can greatly simplify this task and accomplish it with shorter latent periods, more frequently and at lower costs. The results of satellite monitoring of certain areas of California shown to assess the impact of the drought in 2011–2015 on the large freshwater bodies, based on high resolution satellite images.

To quantify the effects of drought in 2011–2015 on selected large freshwater bodies (Lake Folsom and Lake Oroville) processing of multispectral images was performed.

Changes of Lake Oroville in 2011–2015 according to high resolution satellite images was detected. The shift of the coastline near Foreman Creek amounted to 2.5 km. The shift of the coastline near Lampkin Road amounted to over 1.2 km. Changes of Lake Folsom in 2011–2015 according to the high resolution satellite images was detected. The shift of the coastline near the Beal's Point made 1.2 km. The shift of the coastline near Peninsula Campground made over 3.4 km.

Large-scale consequences of drought shown for lakes Oroville and Folsom are also typical for other fresh water bodies of California, the majority of which have the status of water reservoirs, and also for water bodies of other US states. For instance, Lake Mead covering 90 % of water requirements of Las Vegas has the water level by 145 feet below normal. It is expected that this level will go down by another 20 feet by June, 2015. This is not only about water, but also about electricity supply – dams of hydropower plants are almost dry. Therefore, in the recent years an acute necessity has appeared for creation of a web-service for regular space monitoring of fresh water bodies – now this has become possible owing to availability of satellite images and modern technologies of their processing. The users of such a service may be:

– state regulating structures (water supplying enterprises, forest, environment, agricultural services and so on);
– state and private companies of water transport (unbiased evaluation of the consequences of the drought for fresh water navigation);

– tourist companies (monitoring of recreational territories);

– municipal services, private companies, farmers (carrying out measures for minimizing water consumption);

– TV and radio companies and other mass media (propaganda of rational water use);

– population living near territories affected by the drought (obtaining of unbiased and reliable information as for the scale and severity of the consequences of the drought).

Key words: monitoring of the drought, satellite picture, supervised classification, coast line offsets
 

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