2015, Vol. 26. #3-4


THEORETICAL ISSUES OF ECOLOGY / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ ЕКОЛОГІЇ


Skliar V. G. Complex approach to the estimation the species composition of natural regrowth

Скляр В. Г. Комплексний підхід до оцінки видового складу природного відновлення               

DOI:10.15421/031515

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Suggested complex approache to the assessment of the species younger generation of forest tree species, which is formed under the canopy of the parent stands, and in particular to the study representation in phytocenoses of various groups (cohorts) of plants. Researches, the results of which formed the basis of the published work, were conducted during the period from 2002 till 2014 on the territory of Livoberezhne Polissia. We have studied forest phytocenoses that belong to twenty four association groups of forest vegetation and which are typical for this region. The work has been accomplished with the use of geobotanical, population methods and with the use of mathematical and statistical processing of data.

It was shown that for the disclosure laws of species composition formation it is appropriate to resume the use of certain methods of mathematical statistics, including the criterion x2. For a number of key fores-forming species of the region (Pinus sylvestris L., Populus tremula L., Acerplatanoides L., Tilia cordata Mill., Ulmus laevis Pall.) it was statistically proven that their young generation are drawn towards certain forest aggregations. Seed (fruit) dispersion features, peculiar to forest-forming species, intensity of their eurybiontic or stenobiontic properties and plant adaptative potential in general were shown to be one of the defining factors as for the species composition of regrowth.

A method is proposed constructing a «cohort pyramids of natural regrowth», which allows you to visualize the basic features of the representation of different groups of young generation in forest phytocenoses of the given region. Pyramid stages, each matching a certain cohort, give information about the number of forest phytocenoses with the plants of one or another inner population group. It was shown that all basic variants of possible cohort division by phytocenoses quite fully represent four types of pyramids. Prevalence of cohorts of forest-forming species by phytocenoses can match not only four types of pyramids but their various combinations as well. Fluctuations of quantitative and qualitative indices of reproduction during years, as well as fluctuations of weather conditions and thereafter the change of degree of how favorable the conditions of place of growing are for the formation and development of young generation cohorts - all this can lead to the fact that pyramids acquire fragmented nature.

The comparison of the actual cohort pyramids with the theoretical ones showed that there is a gradual decrease of young generation prevalence by association groups in P. sylvestris as in the line: small undergrowth → middle undergrowth → large undergrowth, as well as in the line: mature trees → young trees → large undergrowth. The decrease of cohort prevalence by association groups becomes apparent in Q. robur and P. tremula in the line: small undergrowth → middle undergrowth → large undergrowth → young trees, as well as in the line: mature trees → young trees. Cohorts of generative trees, not of the small undergrowth, are the most spread by association groups in P. sylvestris unlike Q. robur, B. pendula and P. tremula. In P. sylvestris, Q. robur, B. pendula, A. platanoides and P. tremula cohorts of big undergrowth or young trees of forest stand stage are the least represented in association groups. The lack of fragmented variants is the common feature of actual cohort pyramids P. sylvestris, Q. robur, B. pendula, A. platanoides and P. tremula.

Key words: natural regrowth, forest-forming species, cohorts of young generation trees
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

Kovalenko I. N. Potential and realized ecological niches of herb and shrub layer in forest ecosystems of the north-eastern Ukraine

Коваленко І. М. Потенційні екологічні оптимуми і реалізовані екологічні ніші в різних типах лісових екосистем на північному сході України

DOI: 10.15421/031516

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The species composition of herb and shrub layer of the major forest ecosystems of the north-eastern Ukraine has been analyzed at the level of vegetation classes, and individual ecological optimum of the main species of herbs and shrubs has been determined in order to predict the dynamics of their populations in the region.

Literature data and results of our own studies for the period of 2000–2010 have shown that in accordance with the ecofloristic classification in the region, 6 classes of forest vegetation can be distinguished, such as: Querceto-Fagetea Br.-Bl. (1937), Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. (1939), Pulsatillo-Pinetea sylvestris Oberdorfer (1992), Quercetea robori-petreae Br.-Bl. et. Tx. (1963), Salicetea purpureae Moor (1958), Alnetea glutinosae Br. Bl. ex Tx. (1943).

The analysis of the general monographs on ecofloristic classification made in the north-eastern Ukraine (Klika, 1955; Matuszkiewicz, 2001; Shelyah-Sosonko, 2002; Grygora, 2005; Solomakha, 2008; Goncharenko, 2009, 2010; Rogova et al., 2005, etc.), provided an opportunity to review the composition of the characteristic species for the six classes of vegetation, registered in the region. Thereby, species, that hardly ever occur in the region or are very rare, have been excluded from the list of characteristic species. Plant species, peculiar to forest communities of the north-eastern Ukraine, have been added. Woody plants and shrubs have been excluded from the analysis.

For each species of the three central classes its individual ecological optimum has been estimated considering six factors: 1 – light availability, 2 – temperature, 3 – continentality, 4 – soil moisture, 5 – soil acidity, 6 – soil fertility. The point scale of Ellenberg (Ellenberg, 1952, 1996) with 12 points for soil moisture and 9 points for other environmental regimes has been taken as a basis. Due to the fact that the scale of Ellenberg fails to include all these species, and has a lot of gaps in the assessment of individual regimes, it has been supplemented by the point scale of Landolt (Landolt, 1977), in which the number of species is greater and the assessment of their optimum is more complete. Considering that that in the scale of Landolt all environmental factors are divided into 5 points, transformation of points into 12- or 9-integrated assessment of environmental regimes has been made.

The indicated pattern of wide ecological amplitude in characteristic species of higher syntaxonomic units in forest vegetation is useful adaptive trait from the phytocoenogenesis point of view. If there is any change in the general soil-climatic conditions, forest phytocoenoses retain their integrity due to the change in their great number and even the floristic composition in the lower tiers. Grouping of classes Querceto-Fagetea Br.-Bl. (1937), Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. (1939) and Pulsatillo-Pinetea Sylvestris Oberdorfer (1992) play the leading role in the formation of forest ecosystems in the north- eastern Ukraine. Plant species, peculiar to these classes and being part of herb and shrub layer, provide wide ecological amplitudes, covering at least 3–5-point scales of the main environmental factors. Global warming may result in significant changes in the composition and structure of plant populations that form herb and shrub layer of forest phytocenoses of vegetation classes, peculiar to the north-eastern Ukraine.

Key words: the north-eastern Ukraine, herb and shrub layer, ecological optimum
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 


BIOGEOCENOLOGY, GEOBOTANY AND PHYTOCENOLOGY / БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ, ГЕОБОТАНІКА ТА ФІТОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ


 

Matiashuk R. K., Goncharenko I. V., Tkachenko I. V., Prokopuk Y. S., Shchur K. Yu. Taxonomic composition and spatial structure of the elements of landscaping park «Feofaniya»

Матяшук Р. К., Гончаренко І. В., Ткаченко І. В., Прокопук Ю. С., Щур К. Ю. Таксономічний склад та просторова структура елементів озеленення ППСПМ «Феофанія»

DOI: 10.15421/031517

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The research aim was inventory of modern specific variety of dendroflora of introduced species of memorial park of landscape gardening art (MPLGA) «Feofania», analysis of its spatial and life-form distribution, creation of a dot map of landscape gardening elements involving modern GPS and GIS (geographical informative systems) technologies.

Scope of the study: taxonomical variety and biomorphological structure of dendroflora of introduced species.

Research methods: field rout methods; cartographic methods involving GIS; methods of biomorphological and systematic analysis of flora; methods used in dendrology and descriptive statistics methods.

Subject matter of the study: dendroflora of introduced species and cultivars of landscape gardening elements in the of memorial park of landscape gardening art «Feofania» (Kyiv).

The «Feofaniya» park is created on the basis of natural forest of Carpineto (betuli) – Querceta (roboris) in forest type of a landscape-gardening landscape where the main are sites of century Querceta roboris. Its invaluable wealth is a specific variety of natural vegetable cover together with the introduced species and artificially created plantings on which depends the environment of men. The work on inventory of a century usually-oak grove (Querceta roboris)(Querceta roboris plantation) which is earlier finished by authors with use of materials of aerial photography and global system of positioning Navstar (GPS) provided possibility of creation of an electronic database and the card of geospatial placement of century trees of Quercus robur L. at the territory of memorial park of landscape gardening art «Feofaniya».

As MPLGA «Feofaniya» is unique natural and landscape-gardening object, this work covers results of inventory of plantings of its park part (these are nearly 17 ha, or 11 % of the area of the territory). The made analysis of taxonomical structure of wood plants and biomorphological structure of ornamental plants was combined with creation of a schematic map of spatial placement of park basic elements of gardening. The taxonomical structure of park plantings was investigated by method of route inspections. For determination of objects coordinates used GPS map76CSx (mistake within 3–1 m). The cartographical basis is received by means of SAS Planet. Vector cards are constructed in QGIS system.

It is established that a variety of perennial plants in landscape compositions of the central part of MPLGA «Feofaniya» is presented by 130 taxons relating to 3 departments, 3 classes, 34 families and 64 genuses. In biomorphological structure of elements of gardening 53.0 % are the share of trees; 46.1 % – bushes and only one specie of lianas. Total number of elements of gardening is 2915 pieces, from them 784 pieces of coniferous and deciduous 2116 pieces. The created schematic map of spatial placement of basic elements of gardening in landscape compositions of park is a basis for projects of enrichment of the existing variety of memorial park of landscape gardening art «Feofaniya».

Key words: memorial park of landscape gardening art of national importance «Feofaniya», inventory, landscaping, electronic map (vector model)
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

Gofman O. P. Results of studies of post pyrogenic vegetational associations' renewal of feather fescue grass steppe «Askania Nova»

Гофман О. П. Постпірогенне відновлення рослинних угруповань типчаково-ковилового степу «Асканія-Нова» 

DOI: 10.15421/031518

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The results of studies of post pyrogenic vegetational associations' renewal of the feather fescue grass steppe that is under protection of the Biosphere Reserve «Askania-Nova» are given in the paper.

The fire's effect is one of most ancient and powerful factors that forms and determines the development of a steppe ecosystem. The steppe fires are rather often phenomenon at the natural core area of the Biosphere Reserve «Askania-Nova» due to the following factors: 1) availability of long dry period in summer; 2) a plane where any natural obstacles for spreading of the fire are absent; 3) steppe vegetation, which complete the stage of active vegetation by the middle of summer and can accumulate the considerable amount of a dead organic matter (mort mass).

About 300 geobotanical descriptions were performed for studies according to the Braun-Blanquet technique (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). Also elevated phytomass was selected in accordance with generally accepted techniques (Bazilevich, 1967; Yaroshenko, 1969; Ramenskiy, 1971; Rodin, Gortinskiy, 1971). The phytomass was divided into biomass (living organic matter of vegetational origin) and mortmass (dead organic matter of vegetational origin) under the field conditions. Cereals (by species), sedges, annual and perennial herbs, and cryptogamous plants were marked out separately in the biomass composition. The mortmass fraction was divided into dead standing grass (vegetational remains which conserve a connection with maternal plant) and litter (dead organic mass of plants which lost the connection with maternal plant). The above-ground phytomass was selected on the site «Stara», where the large-scale fire had happened in 04–05.08.2012, under the ecological line «flaWslope^depression». The postpyrogenic renewal of vegetational association Stipa ucrainica (+ S. capillata, S. lessingiana) + Festuca valesiaca was studied also at 68 sq. of the site «Pivdenny» («South»), which had undergone the double fire effect in February and July 2007.

The vegetative vascular plants species which have resumed their development were recorded at the permanent route and phenological stations at the site «Stara» in a month after the fire. As a result about 33 species of higher vascular plants belong to 31 genuses of 17 families. The families Asteraceae (Artemisia austriaca Jacq., Carduus uncinatus M. Bieb., Crepis ramosissima D'Urv., Lactuca serriola L., Tragopogon major Jacq.) and Poaceae (Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub, Festuca valesiaca Gaudin, Leymus ramosus (Trin.) Tzvelev, Stipa ucrainica P. Smirn., Poa angustifolia L.) are predominant by the number of species.

When studying process of the post pyrogenic vegetational associations' renewal at the site «Stara» it has been determined that the changes occurring in vegetational associations owing to the fire effect (decreasing of abundant blooming of dominant plants' species, reducing of lichen cover, release the area from the dead organic matter of vegetational origin, and therefore increasing of the area of open ground) facilitate to a significant increase of abundant blooming and shares of annual and biennial herbs in grass stand, growth of the number of light-loving species of ground algae, and also spreading of rhizomatous species Leymus ramosus on the watersheds. Precipitations of vegetative season (march-june) influence on the renewal on elevated phytomass of dominant grass stand species before the fires.

Key words: feather fescue grass steppe, steppe fire, Askania-Nova, above-ground phytomass, fire, reserve
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 


ECOLOGICAL MORPHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА МОРФОЛОГІЯ ТА ФІЗІОЛОГІЯ РОСЛИН


 

Lucyshyn O. G., Teslenko I. K. Species specificity of woody trees adaptation at technogenically transformed urbanhabitats of the Kyiv megalopolisis

Луцишин О. Г., Тесленко І. К. Видова специфічність адаптації деревних рослин техногенно трансформованих урбоедафотопів Київського мегаполісу 

DOI: 10.15421/031519

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The recent ecological situation of Kyiv megalopolis has a special specific of environment technogenic pollution as a chemical features and content of polluting phytotoxicants. During 2007–2012, our observation revealed what the most dangerous factors which have harm impact on the street woody plants are the huge concentration of phytotoxic elements (Na+, Cl-, Pb2+, Cd2+). Nowadays, the technogenic impact on the megalopolyisis surrounding comes to the dangerous, even, catastrophic level. The main reason of total and chloral necrose of leaves, the summer defoliation of crown and major tree's death is the over pollution of the soil and plant's phytomass by phytotoxic elements, the concentration of which by standards evaluation and by trees reactions are critical and exists at the level of adaptation possibility and survival.

The main sources of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions are transport outcomes (> 90 % of total technogenic pollution). The increasing of Pb2+ and Cd2+ in the soil is depended from intensivity of transport outcomes, using of ethylated petrol, and location of trees along roads as well as from the trees species. Continuously increasing of number of cars at the city streets is accompanying with similar increasing of ions concentration. Thus, in the soil around root system of street woody plants, depending from their location along roads, the concentration of Pb2+ (moving form) is between 41,7 (I. Kudri str.) and 102,6 mg\kg of soil (Nauki avenue). It exceeds the maximum permissible concentration (MPC), which is 20,8–51,3 mg\kg of soil. Next, for Norway maple (Acer platanoides) the concentration of Pb2+ in the soil varies from 41,7 to 80,5 mg / kg of soil in the area of the root system and it is around 20,8–40,2 MPC. In the leaves of this tree it is 7,83–13,5 mg / kg of dry mass (MPC is 15,8–27,0). For the horse chestnut (Aedculus hippocastanum) at the Nauka avenue, the concentration of plumbum in the root is 13,4 mg / kg (MPC is 26,8), in the cortex – 17,7 mg / kg (MPC is 35,4), in leaves – 8,21 mg / kg (MPC is 16,4), which by the normative evaluation are the critical concentrations.

The source of Na+ and Cl-, which is a new factor for Kyiv megalopolis, is irregular load of high concentrations of industrial salt NaCl into the environment, as a way against black ice in winter time, where the Na+ ions ( mobile form) is in the high concentrations in leaves (0,76 % for Norway maple (Acer platanoides) on the I. Kudri str., 1,28 % – small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata) at the 40-richya Zhovtnya ave, 2,0 % – horse chestnut (Aedculus hippocastanum) at the Nauki ave), those are exceeded the concentration of the element comparing to the control test object, respectively, in 10,6, 12,8 and 5,0 times. Na+ ions are an aggressive phytotoxins and the main factor of leaves necrose of tree crown (within 70–100 % necrosis leaves in the crown). Degradation and total reduction of the specific weight of plants in the megalopolis environment are decrease the cleaning role of the street tree plants, which are the main alive filters for soil and air cleaning, as well as the main bioaccumulators and detoxicants of harm substances of anthropogenic pollution.

Species adaptive specificity is revealed at the bioaccumulation level and the selective locality of phytotoxic elements (Na+, Cl-, Pb2+, Cd2+, agile form) in technourbanhabitats-pic conditions, there dominated bioaccumulation and localization of Na+ ions by trees assimilative system is caused the adaptive orientation of endogenic and intraspecific variability of phytoindicative morphophysiologic features of plants functional condition under the stressing factors. This also is defined the sensitivity of small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.), norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) to the big concentration of potassium as the most danger one for the plant survival. The biggest accumulation of Na+ ions at the roots of Lombardy poplar (Populus pyramidalis Roz.), Bolle's poplar (Populus bolleana Lauche) and sugar maple (Acer saccharinum L.) is lead to a higher resistance of their assimilation system. At the technourbohabitate-pic conditions, the level of realization of ontogenetic and phylogenetic adaptive capacity of the sensitive species of trees is harmfully low (21,3–44,3 %). It is at the level of survival/death of plants. The street Lombardy poplar, Bolle's poplar and sugar maple, despite of more higher level of their adaptation (68,4–87,7 %), still also can't fully adapt to the critical levels of technogenic pollution of megalopolis environment.

Key words: megalopolis, woody plants, phytotoxic elements (Nd+, Cl, Pb2+, Cd2+), bioaccumulation, localization), morphophysiological features, variability, correlative relationship, adaptive capacity
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

Tyulkova E. G. Morphological parameters leaves woody plants in an urban environment (on Gomel example)

Тюлькова Е. Г. Морфологические параметры листьев древесных растений в условиях городской среды (на примере города Гомеля)  

DOI: 10.15421/031520

Abstract (Show preview in english)


At present much attention is paid to the investigation of the indicative features of organisms on the whole and vegetative objects in particular.

However, it should be noted that sources of toxic elements distributed unevenly on the territories and having various character and intensity in the form of the enterprises and constructions create rather motley picture of environmental pollution both by structure of pollutants, and by their concentration. Therefore an important scientific problem is the examination not only of changes in conditions of technogenic influence in general, but the research of dependence of intensity of morphological plants parameters change on structure and concentration of chemical pollutants in the environment, and also the assessment of possible consequences of pollutants accumulation in vegetative objects. This was the aim of this work.

To perform the work used landscape-geochemical analysis include, extending the definition of the emission factor load, characteristic technogene sources of pollution in the form of industrial plants, evaluation of storage medium (vegetation). Vegetation condition was assessed by determining morphological parameters - the length and width of the leaf blade.

The article presents a comparative assessment of the anthropogenic impact level of the largest industrial enterprises on the air state in the city of Gomel. Enterprises of western and southern industrial zone have proved to make the greatest contribution to the urban air pollution. The value of the standard deviation was used to assess the degree of anthropogenic impact of industrial enterprises on morphological parameters of woody plants. This index increased in the western and southern industrial zones in the direction from the enterprises with the large volume of pollutant emissions to the enterprises with the small volume of emissions. This trend is caused by stabilizing selection action due to the environmental stress in the form of emissions of the industrial enterprises in these zones. It is also revealed that in western and southern industrial zones the formation of the leaf blade length and width depends more on the level of anthropogenic impact of the chemical plant, combined heat and power plant, JSC «Centrolit» and JSC «Gomeldrev» compared with other companies, that should be considered when further improvement of environmental activities. The results are generally characterized by scientific novelty of the research and can be used for the purpose of indexing the level of anthropogenic impact on urban areas and further improve the methods of monitoring the state of the urban environment.

Next it is planned to evaluate the morphological parameters of the leaf blade of woody plants growing in the area of two large industrial enterprises of the Gomel region – JSC «Mozyr Oil Refinery» (Mozyr), JSC «Belarusian Metallurgical Plant» (Zhlobin) and in city parklands. Then the further testing of the heavy metals content will be carried out in the samples of woody plants, grasses and soil from the territory of the industrial enterprises and parklands of the city of Gomel, Mozyr, and Zhlobin.

Key words: technogenesis, industrial enterprises, chemical pollutants, wood plants, length of a sheet plate, width of a sheet plate, atmospheric pollution
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

Tkach E. P. The elemental composition of grains of winer wheat for pre-treatment of manganese sulphate

Ткач О. П. Елементний склад зерна озимої пшениці за передпосівної обробки насіння сульфатом марганцю 

DOI: 10.15421/031521

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The research has been aimed at definition of bioavailable forms of selected trace elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Co) in agricultural soils.The analyzed soils were generally characterized by acid or very acid pH. Manganese impact on plant growth and a content of the elements in grain have been studied during pre-sowing treatment of winter wheat seeds with solutions of manganese sulphate.

The field research was undertaken during 2012-2014. Experimental scheme consisted of the following variants: 1–5 – pre-sowing treatment of winter wheat seeds Artemida by solutions of MnSO4 • 5H2O with corresponding percentage of concentrations: 1.0; 0.5; 0.1; 0.01; 0,001. Processing has been performed a day before sowing. Variant 6 – control, without processing. The soil was sod-brown, hydrolytic acidity – 3,47, exchange acidity – 4,82. Germination of the seeds has been preliminary determined in laboratory conditions. The growth rate, increase of dry weight, has been determined in the tillering stage (3–1 leaves). ICP spectrometry method has been applied to study the elemental compositions of the grain and soil using emission spectrometer ISP-MS Agilent 7700x. Soil samples extracted with ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.8 in soil-solution correlation 1:5. Samples of the grain have been chosen selectively from the plots of each variant in the stage of full grain maturity. The average sample from each repetition has been prepared for the analysis. The samples were milled and ashed in nitric acid using microwave system of sample preparation – Milestone Start D. Fluka Multielement standard solution 5 for ICP has been used for calibration standards. Biological absorption coefficients (Cba) have been identified for establishing of quantitative parameters of transition of micronutrients from the soil into the wheat plants. Cb.a. have been determined by the correlation between the concentration of the element in wheat and its concentration in soil. Comparison has been conducted between two samples: Cba in the variant of optimal 0,01 % concentration of manganese sulphate in pre-sowing treatment of winter wheat seeds and Cb.a in control variant where the natural influence – high availability of mobile forms of microelements in soil under research - has been taken into consideration.

The research on determination of bioavailable forms of trace elements in the sod-brown soils has demonstrated very high provision of mobile forms of manganese and copper as well as high provision of zinc and cobalt. It has been explained by the genesis of these soils since soil forming rocks of volcanic origin are saturated with polymetals and mobility and bioavailability depend on the acid reaction of soil solution. Based on manganese research results there was defined a clear dependence of the plant growth on the concentration of manganese sulphate in pre-sowing treatment of wheat seeds. The usage of 0, 01–0,001 % manganese sulphate solutions is optimal for winter wheat growth. Treatment with these concentrations stimulates the growth of the plants in comparison to the control variant. Higher concentrations, 0,1–1,0 %, can result with deceleration of growth processes.

It has been found out that the content of manganese in wheat depends on the concentration of the element used in pre-sowing treatment of seeds. The general conformity to natural laws of this dependence is due to the fact that as the concentration of manganese in pre-sowing treatment of seeds has decreased, its concentration in seeds has increased, but it has been less than in seeds of the control variant. We should mention that the concentration of manganese in wheat seeds of the control variant has a little exceeded the maximum allowable concentration. There was assumed that in the case of pre-sowing treatment of the seeds with solutions of manganese sulphate of 0,01 and 0,001 % concentrations the manganese can act as a microelement without negative influence on formation of harvest and the content of valuable manganese microelement in grain.

During the pre-sowing treatment of the seeds the manganese reveals its antagonism in respect to accumulation of copper and not affecting the content of zinc and cobalt in the grain. Manganese, zinc, and copper can be accumulated in the grain of winter wheat, Cba> 1.The reason is high need of crops, including winter wheat, in these microelements.

Key words: trace elements, bioavailability, winter wheat, pre-sowing treatment of seeds, manganese
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 


ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCIENCE / ЕКОЛОГІЧНЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО


Samokhvalova V. L., Grinchenko T. O., Zhuravleva I. M., Mandryka O. V. Bioremediation of soil – soil biota – plants system under heavy metal pollution as a factor of chemical and biological degradation

Самохвалова В. Л., Гринченко Т. О., Журавльова І. М., Мандрика О. В. Біоремедіація системи «ґрунт – ґрунтова біота – рослина» при забруднені важкими металами як фактору хімічної та біологічної деградації

DOI: 10.15421/031522

Abstract (Show preview in english)


By carrying out long-term field studies of soil – soil biota – plants system in areas of technogenic impact emission of HM it was determined the taxonomic composition of mycological coenosis under the soil pollution by HM fungi genera Mucor, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Aspergillus. It was given the high levels of soil contamination by HM fate fungi of the genus Trichoderma, which is not phytopathogenic in mycological coenosis of soil, increased significantly under 13 %, indicating that the stability of operation in the presence of HM excess in soils. Among the genus Trichoderma fungi, it was found the most active in species Trichoderma viride. It was determined that fungi, bacteria compared to the soil, are more resistant to contamination concealed antagonism and inhibition effect of certain bacteria fungi that compete with native soil biota. On the basis of the soil-geochemical investigations the results in zones of sources of man-made emissions of pollutants influence Zmievskoy TPP «Centrenergo» NAC «Energy Company of Ukraine» Kharkiv region and a series of laboratory experiments elaborated a methodical approach for bioremediation of contaminated with heavy metals (HM) of the soil – soil biota – plants system. Used established a new property of the active biochemical agent of mycological drug Trihodermin BT based on mycological drug culture type Trichoderma viride – the ability to intensify the process of bioremediation and restore the quality of technogenic contaminated soils by HM. Biological preparation of Trichoderma BT used as a new biological improver for the prevention of biological and chemical degradation of soils with the activation of the myco- and microbial system of soil, functioning, increase the immune status and productivity of Hordeum sativum plants and improving their quality. Provides bioremediation effect with a limited term of a biological product in the soil, lowering its standards with increased use of its biological effectiveness.

The technical result of the method is the expansion of the mycological drugs bank as natural resources with the effect of fertilizers, while the spread of the effective action of the active agent in the other components of the biological product of the studied system to produce new biological effects with simultaneous stabilization of the ecological environment, natural activation of the biological potential of the soil and the economic use of resources. The method can be used in agroecology, soil ecological management, for environmental monitoring of technogenic contaminated soils for various purposes and their using; in research practice – to develop a system of measures for biological remediation of contaminated areas in the complex biological processing methods remediation of contaminated soil and restoration of their resources, and, consequently, lower intensity of chemical and biological degradation of soils under the influence of technogenic pollution by HM; to improve the soil quality.

Key words: soil pollution, heavy metals, biological and chemical degradation, bioremediation method, Trichoderma viride, mycological drug Trihodermin BT, Hordeum sativum
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

Gorban V. A. Ecological soil physics as section of ecological soil science

Горбань В. А. Экологическая физика почв как раздел экологического почвоведения  

DOI: 10.15421/031523

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Nowadays, there is a general penetration of ecology in other related sciences. Soil science is not an exception. To the evidence of this, the works of soil scientists may serve, that have appeared recently. It is shown that the ecology of soil is a broader area of the genetic soil science, than ecological soil science. In addition to the doctrine of the ecological functions of soil, modern soil ecology also includes the factor ecology and the doctrine of biosphere soil conservation.

In modern soil science there are 2 main areas – fundamental, which aims to study all the features of soil as a natural body, and applied that examines various aspects of soil use by man.

At the same time it should be noted that most of soil scientists until recently isolated a genetic soil science in two main areas – the genesis and the geography of soils. Academician L. I. Prasolov (1978) was the first who proposed to allocate soil ecology in a separate section of soil science, along with the above directions. V. R. Volobuev (1963) hold on to the similar views. I. A. Sokolov (1993) showed that the section «Soil ecology» is equal to such sections of soil science as the «Genesis of the soil» and «Geography of the soil». N. A. Gorin (2005) hold on to the similar point of view.

On this basis, we offer the following vision of the place of soil ecology in the structure of modern soil science. This scheme is based on the allocation of basic research in the areas of soil science by the team of authors under the leadership of the Moscow State University V. A. Kovda and B. G. Rozanov (Pochvovedenie, 1988). The classification of the historic area of soil science is identified with the genesis of soil by us, and pedography – with the geography of soil. The scientific achievements of other fundamental areas (pedognostika, dynamic soil science, regional soil science, history and methodology of science) are widely used to address key issues of historical soil science and pedography. The structure of the direction «Ecology of soil» is developed by academician G. V. Dobrovolsky and E. D. Nikitin (2012). This doctrine of the ecological functions of soil, classification by B. F. Aparin (2012) is a fundamental direction, the theoretical basis of ecological soil science, related to the applied directions. After L. O. Karpachevsky (2005), who considers the ecological functions of soil subject as ecological soil science, we identify the ecological soil science with the doctrine of the ecological functions of soil in some extent. This view is confirmed by the definition of ecological soil science, formulated G. V. Dobrovolsky and G. S. Kust (2012) – «This is a direction in modern soil science, studied the role of soil as a unique habitat of plants, animals, microorganisms, and especially – in human life, in the functioning of the biosphere and the individual ecosystems». From the above definition, it is clear that in this case, the authors believe that the core of ecological soil science is ecological functions of soil, which manifest themselves through their specific role in nature and human life.

The subject of the study of ecological soil science, as indicated by L. O. Karpachevsky (2005), is the ecological functions of soil. Modern physics of soil – is the area of soil science that studies the physical properties of the soil and the place in which physical processes are flowing (Voronin, 1986). As you can see from the definition, the ecological functions of soil caused by the physical properties of soil, remain outside the field of soil physics research. For this reason, there is a need for the provision and the development of ecological soil physics, which is based on theoretical and practical achievements of classical physics of soil, and will also pay close attention to research the ecological functions of soil.

Key words: soil ecology, ecological soil science, the ecological functions of soil, ecological soil physics
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

Vlasenko N. O. Soil and geobotanical, typological characteristics of bottomland forest with short-term flooding Poltava-city green belt

Власенко Н. О. Ґрунтово-геоботанічна та типологічна характеристики короткозаплавних лісів зеленої зони м. Полтави

DOI: 10.15421/031524

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Carrying out its assignment Poltava-city green belt bottomland forests with short-term flooding, has significant anthropogenic impact, needs constant research of forest biogeocoenosis present day condition. There have been done the complex research of bottomland forests with short-term flooding which are located in the range of Poltava-city green belt. Forest types according to O. L. Belgard have been noted. Soil and geobotanical characteristics, soil sections macromorphological peculiarities have been given, results of soil water extracts analysis in the investigated forestry have been noted.

Throuout the complex researches of all components of forest biogeocoenosis the learning of forest and environment coorelation that is due to anthropogenic effect is topical. Especially it concerns the big cities green belt of industrial regions that suffer from the human direct influence or indirect consequences of his living. Thereby the National special-purpose program «Forests of Ukraine» for 2010–2015 was approved the aim of which is a complex study of this category of forest-steppe zone forest biogeocoenosis. For this reason was made an accent to investigate all-round the Poltava-city green belt forests related to Poltava Region throuout the regional special-purpose program of forestry integrated development «Poltava region forests by 2015».

To identify the soil and geobotanical characteristics of biogeocenosis and physical and chemical piculiarities of bottomland forests with short-term flooding adaphotop we will consider the most typical sample plots of different plantations according to its forest stand that grows in relatively identical conditions.

Forest areas of Poltava-city green belt belongs to the eastern soil and climatic forest-steppe zone of Poltava Region and is situated in forest-stepp belt of Left bank of Dnipro inside the Dnipro and Donetsk dimple. The most common soils are deep, low humic chernozem and middle clay-loam soil. There are mulch and sandy, agrilloarenaceous soils in river valleys . The picture of exploration area ground structure looks in such a way. The most common ground species of the area is a loess-like clay loam. There are sands observed near the river bed of Vorskla and clay on steep slopes. Soddy-meadow and chernozem-meadow, sandy loam and clay loam soils are involved in the bottomland forests formation. Typical chernozem occupies significant territories, which is formed by herbaceous grouping of mesoxerophytes, euxerophytes and xeromesophytes.

Floodplain soils are divided into three parts: riverine, central and terrace near flood plain. In the riverine part is formed the most light mechanical components of interbedding soils formed on new derived silt from slightly humic layers. There are a low percent of humus (not more than 1 %) and nutritional chemicals. Thereby their fertility is low. In the central part of floodplain had been formed the sandy loam and clay loam soils with stronger profile on the massive, often calcareous or carbonaceous parent rock material. In cases of flood the water is widely overflowed and stay for a long time rich in sludge particles. It is the richest soils of the floodplain. The done research gave us the opportunity to clear up that the bottomland forests with short-term flooding of Poltava-city green belt are consist mainly of oak, aspen and alder forests. The formation and distribution of the main associations of floodplain forests depend on the regime of floodplain, trophotop and relief inhomogenuity.

It was noticed that it can be found three more typical natural forest vegetations related to bottomland forests with short-term flooding inside the Poltava-city green belt: Dc' 3 (moist linden oak forest with hairlike sedge), Dn / 4 (alder forest with muddy tall herbaceous vegetation), Dc / 2 (live aspen forest with ).

It was noticed, that in all investigated plant formations the forest site type is sandy loam with different variations: live (SP / 2), moist (SP / 3), muddy (SP / 4). Different variations of soil has been investigated. There is no carbonate in soils of the investigated biogeocenosis. Water extract analysis tell about the lack of salinity properties, dry particles ranges (0,05–0,2 %), pH is alkaline. Detailed soil and geobotanical characteristics and establishing peculiarities of bottomland forests with short-term flooding adaphotop will give opportunity to reconstruct the existing Poltava-city green belt plantations and organize the stationary investigations with the aim of their more rational employment and saving.

Key words: soil and geobotanical characteristic, forest typology, macromorphological peculiarities, chemical characteristics
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 


ZOOCENOSES AS A COMPONENT OF BIOGEOCENOSIS / ЗООЦЕНОЗ ЯК КОМПОНЕНТ БІОГЕОЦЕНОЗУ


Korzh A. P., Zahovalko T. V. Urbanization of fauna on the example of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus)

Корж А. П., Заховало Т. В. Урбанизация фауны на примере озерной лягушки (Реlорhylах ridibundus)  

DOI: 10.15421/031525

Abstract (Show preview in english)


Recently, the number of published works devoted to the processes of synanthropization of fauna, is growing like an avalanche, which indicates the extreme urgency of this theme. In our view, the process of forming devices to coexist with human and the results of his life reflects the general tandency of the modern nature evolution.

Urbanization is characteristic for such a specific group of animals like amphibians, the evidence of which are numerous literature data. Many researchers use this group to assess the bioindicative quality of the environment. For this aim a variety of indicators are used: from the cellular level of life of organization up to the species composition of the group in different territories. At the same time, the interpretation of the results is not always comparable for different areas and often have significantly different interpretations by experts.

Urban environment, primarily due to the contamination is extremely aggressive to amphibians. As a consequence, the urban populations of amphibians may be a change in the demographic structure, affecting the reproductive ability of the population, the disappearance of the most sensitive species or individuals, resizing animals, the appearance of abnormalities in the development, etc. At the same time play an important amphibians in the ecosystems of cities, and some species in these conditions even feel relatively comfortable. Therefore, it is interesting to understand the mechanisms of self-sustaining populations of amphibians in urban environments.

To assess the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the development of amphibian populations were used cognitive modeling using the program Vensim PLE. Cognitive map of the model for urban and suburban habitat conditions were the same. The differences concerned the strength of connections between individual factors (migration, fertility, pollution) and their orientation. In general, factors like pollution, parasites, predators had negative impact on the population, reducing its number. The birth rate, food and migration contributed to raising number of individuals. Some of the factors affected on the strength to of each other as well: the majority of the factors affected the structure of the population, had an influence on the fertility. Thanks to it the model reflects the additive effect of complex of factors on the subsequent status of the population.

Proposed and analyzed four scenarios differing strength and duration of exposure. In the first scenario, a one-time contamination occurs and not subsequently repeated. The second and third scenario assumes half board contamination, 1 year (2 scenario) and two years (scenario 3). In the fourth scenario, the pollution affected the population of amphibians constantly.

In accordance with the results of simulation, much weaker than the natural populations respond to pollution - have them as an intensive population growth and its disappearance at constant pollution is slow. Changes to other parameters of the model showed that this pollution is the decisive factor -only the constant action leads to a lethal outcome for the populations. All other components of the model have a corrective effect on the population dynamics, without changing its underlying trand.

In urban areas due to the heavy impact of pollution maintaining the population is only possible thanks to the migration process – the constant replenishment of diminishing micropopulations of natural reserves. This confirms the assumption that the form of existence metapopulations lake frog in the city. In order to maintain the number of amphibians in urban areas at a high level it is necessary to maintain existing migration routes and the creation of new ones.

Insular nature of the placement of suitable habitats in urban areas causes the metapopulation structure of the types of urbanists. Therefore, the process of urbanization is much easier for those species whicht are capable of migration in conditions of city.

In the initial stages of settling the city micropopulationis formed by selective mortality of the most susceptible individuals to adverse effects. In future, maintaining the categories of individuals is provided mainly due to migration processes metapopulisation form of the species of existence is supported). It should be noted that the changes in the previous levels are always saved in future. In the case of reorganizations of individuals we of morphology can assume the existence of extremely adverse environmental conditions that threaten the extinction of the micropopulations.

Key words: marsh frog, urbanization offauna, metapopulation, cognitive modeling, pollution
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

 


ECOLOGY AND SPACE / ЕКОЛОГІЯ ТА КОСМОС


 

Dron N. M., Horolsky P. G., Dubovik L. G. Evalution of technical means capabilities for minimisation of technogenic pollution of a near space

Дронь Н. М., Хорольский П. Г., Дубовик Л. Г. Оценка возможностей технических средств для минимизации техногенного засорения околоземного космического пространства  

DOI: 10.15421/031526

Abstract (Show preview in english)


The conducted researches are directed on the solution of one of the most important problems of the space use – a problem connected with existence and inadmissibility of growth the quantity of a technogenic origin space debris on low near-earth and geostationary orbits because its further increase will overlap to mankind an exit in space and will terminate space activity. In the basis of a technique of researches the analysis of an existing ecological condition of the surrounding space environment on which base determined the major factors of pollution of the space and considered ways of struggle against space debris on near-earth orbits is put.

It is established that the major factors of pollution of the near-earth space are spent stages of launch vehicles and accelerating units, the space crafts which have terminated its existence, fragments of destroyed artificial space objects, operational elements etc. Space debris basically is concentrated on low orbits and around a geostationary orbit which on the basis of the analysis of statistical data on space crafts starts are in most common use. Here groupings of space crafts of the various particular mission, including space crafts of communication, relay, TV, the early prevention of a rocket attack are concentrated.

It is shown that the main ways of struggle against space debris are prevention of occurrence new and removal of the already existing debris. Notable decrease in level of the pollution can achieve at cumulative use of such measures, as an exception of explosions of the space objects, limitation of quantity of the started space crafts, reduction of number of the accompanying fragments injected into orbits at starts.

Methods and means of withdrawal from working orbits of space crafts upon termination of term of their active existence and known ways and systems of active removal of already existing fragments of the space debris, such as: application of an ionic bunch, the space ship-towing vehicle, the polyurethane foam, the pulsing laser, harpoon system, electrodynamic cord system are considered. Scientific novelty of the presented results consists in the description of conceptual actions for reduction of pollution of the space. The activities executed in the given direction, have huge practical value as the outer space exploration gives huge advantage and significant progress to mankind, but the further operation at near-earth space by existing methods without acceptance of the measures indicated in the article, its further safe development already will not allow in the near future.
Key words: space debris, a near-earth space, reduction of technogenic pollution
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 


METHODOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS / МЕТОДИЧНІ РОЗРОБКИ


Kotsyuba P. G., Semko I. D., Kozak 1.1., Parpan T. V., Kozak G. G., Stempen A. A. Laser scanning as a tool for the analysis of the greenery on the example of Poremba district in Lublin

Коцюба П. Г., Семко І. Д., Козак І.  І., Парпан Т. В., Козак Г. Г., Стемпень А. А. Лазерне сканування в аналізі зелених насаджень на прикладі дільниці Поремба у Любліні (Польща)

DOI: 10.15421/031527

Abstract (Show preview in english)


World experience shows that the survey of green spaces by traditional methods is very time consuming, costly and does not always get all the information you need to make of adequate management decisions by municipal authorities. The aim of this article was to show the main stages of analysis and prospects of urban green space using aerial lidar data and submit the effect of three-dimensional visualization of the study area.

There were presented the possibilities and perspectives of using the data obtained from airborne laser scanning (ALS) for the analysis of greenery on the example of Poremba district in Lublin (Poland).

Research conducted in Poremba district in the Polish city of Lublin (district was built from 1988 to 2005 and is located in the western part of the city). Analysis of green space conducted using quantitative analytical methods. By detailed analysis of the study area were used aerial lidar data from the year 2015. To classify aerial lidar data such software were used: LP360, ArcMap 10.3, Toolbox LAStools. The process of analysis begins with the definition of points, belonging to ground (Ground - GR), and the classification was realized using «lasground» with tools LAStools.

The article is dedicated to development the method of estimation the tree height based on airborne LiDAR data. Method applies more information about the three-dimensional structure of natural objects derived from the processing of airborne LiDAR data compared with known methods. Furthermore, the method is adapted to determine and calculate characteristics of stand which using for tree inventory in cities. Methodological and algorithmic instructions to determine the tree parameters in city were proposed. These instructions allow automatically calculating the characteristics of the tree parameters, such as the allocation of each tree and tree height. The study area was analyzed in terms of the distribution of vegetation (separately individual growing trees and groups of trees). For that purpose there was applied an available ALS data. Based on the ALS data there were separated the tops of the trees and their height. In order to verify the ALS data there were used the results of field measurements (coordinates for the tree trunks, the diameter at breast height of trees, their height, crown projection).

The analysis of the greenery within the Poremba district using the ALS data after verification with the field measurements proved to be an effective tool for the characterization of the greenery areas in particular city. This research may be important in terms of planning the planting of greenery areas and spatial development of the Lublin.

Key words: greenery, trees, airborne laser scanning, Lublin
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 


REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗІЇ


Travleyev A. P., Bilova N. A. The book, dedicated to the plants of grass and subshrub layer – Kovalenko I. M. Ecology of the lower layer plants of forest ecosystems. – Sumy : University Book, 2015. – 360 p.

Травлеев А. П., Белова Н. А. Книга, посвященная растениям травянисто-кустарничкового яруса – Коваленко И. Н. Экология растений нижних ярусов лесных экосистем. – Сумы : Университетская книга, 2015. – 360 с.

DOI: 10.15421/031528

Abstract (Show preview in english)


A large array of information regarding the study of forest vegetation, represented by a great number of scientists, demonstrates the relevance of this direction and at the same time the gaps of existing research on this field.

The author of the book is Ihor Mykolayovych Kovalenko, a representative of Sumy ecologists and botanists, a native of the scientific school of the well-known biogeocenologist and ecologist Julian A. Zlobin.

The monograph is structured into 8 chapters, conclusions and a list of references. It is worth noting the presence of numerous diagrams, tables and figures which appropriately complement the text material. The peculiarity of the work is that the author, focusing on the lower layer plants of forest ecosystems, has also shown and analyzed the impact of various components of forest ecosystems on each other. This approach is characterized by a complexity which certainly enhances the practical value of the publication and the results it provides.

The book is a comprehensive study of the plants of grass and subshrub layer of forest ecosystems. However, the author focuses on the need to conduct the constant monitoring of individual components and ecosystems in general, limited to the nature reserve areas. This publication may be recommended as a methodological manual while conducting such research.

Outline of the book sections presented above clearly demonstrates a comprehensive and in-depth study of the lower layer plants of forest ecosystems in the north-east of Ukraine.

In general, we believe that the reviewed scientific work of I. M. Kovalenko «Ecology of the lower layer plants of forest ecosystem» is a major contribution to the scientific literature on ecology and sozology. It will undoubtedly find a positive response in the wide circles of ecologists, geobotanists and phytosozologs.

Key words: forest ecosystems, grass and subshrub layer, stability, prediction of ecosystem condition, monitoring
 

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf
 

 

 


JUBILEE DATA / ЮВІЛЕЙНІ ДАТИ


Yevtushenko E. O. To the 80th anniversary of Professor V. I. Shanda

Євтушенко Е. О. До 80-річчя з дня народження професора В. І. Шанди

article language
ukr
download pdf >>>
pdf