2015, Vol. 26. #1-2


BIOGEOCENOLOGY, GEOBOTANY AND PHYTOCENOLOGY/
БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ, ГЕОБОТАНІКА ТА ФІТОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ


Bogovin A. V. Contribution of National scientific center "Institute of agriculture NAAS" in the development of ecologic-biological and agrotechnical bases of meadow science in Ukraine

Боговін А. В. Внесок Національного наукового центру «Інститут землеробства НААН» у розвиток еколого-біологічних та агротехнічних основ луківництва в Україні               

DOI:10.15421/031501

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In this article the history of the formation of the National Scientific Center "Institute of Agriculture NAAS" of Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine is briefly presented. It is noted that it started its existence in 1900 as agrochemical laboratory of Kiev Society Agriculture and Agricultural Industry and in 1935 it already became multidisciplinary and influential research institution in problems of agriculture, that was widely recognized in Ukraine, Soviet Union and far abroad. After establishing of the Department fodder production in it in 1944, then the Department of Meadow Science and now the Department of forage production and Meadow Science, the Institute has also done much in this field of knowledge.

Under the methodological guidance and direct participation of Institute in 1957–1961 years, simultaneously with the examination of soil cover in Ukraine, continuous large-scale geobotanical survey and culture-technical examination of hay-pasture lands had been done and regarding to each farm type plans and cartograms of their improvements were made and have been widely used during planning and implementation of works on improving the efficiency of the use of country's land resources and valuation of soil.

The Institute investigated the natural essence of different types of meadows and developed theoretical and practical problems of their flora, ecology, geography, classification, structure and a wide range of measures to improve their ecological and biological, economic and environmental values. It comprehensively elucidated the potential properties of perennial grasses and annual forage crops as representatives of primary and the most determinative material-energetic link of natural and anthropogenically transformed ecosystems, their degree of biological compatibility in coenoses and on the basis of consideration of coenobiotical complementarity made selection and zoning of their mixtures for different geographical areas of countries, environmental growing conditions and economic purpose. A great work has been carried out to develop agrotechnics for cultivation of fodder crops, systems of their fertilization, irrigation, use of biological nitrogen in meadow science, principles of optimizing of spatial and functional organization of agricultural landscapes and ways of reproduction in their composition of permanent herbaceous ecosystems, as stabilizing elements of natural and man-made systems. The scientific basis for the creation and an effective use of irrigated and unirrigated pasture was developed and for the first time in Ukraine, former Soviet Union and in the world the technology of combined use of irrigated pasture with combination of large groups (20–25 ha in one array) with a daily potion grazing of high yielding cows (4,5–5 thousand kg of milk.) by large herds (up to 500–600 heads in the herd) was perfected and implemented in production andduring the XII International Congress on Meadow Science held in Moscow in 1974, received the highest rating from world leading meadow.

The methodical base of systematic study of biotic systems and their biodiversity through extensive involvement in the research process of different physiognomic, floristry, individualistic and functionally-group ratings of biomorphological, trophic, destructive, ecological and many other important system properties was significantly expanded. Also the participation in international scientific congresses and symposia on meadow science, that were held in foreign countries, and representation of employees in their governing bodies had been shown in the article.

Key words: meadow science, natural and man-made lukopasovyschni ecosystems, biodiversity, productivity, function-group methods research environment
 

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Shanda V. I., Voroshylova N. V. Methodology and theory of biogeocenology

Шанда В. І., Ворошилова Н. В. Про методологію та теорію біогеоценології

DOI: 10.15421/031502

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In biogeocenosis theory the extrapolation of views of V. I. Vernadsky on the biosphere, the construction of multi-level methodological problems, concepts, identifying areas of the current state of retro- and foreseeable prospects, the development of ideas of V. N. Sukachov, I. I. Shmalhauzen are essential. Biogeocenology is a science conjugated with environmental science in the foreseeable future of which is a combination of synthetic theory of evolution based on the development of evolutionary and cybernetic ideas of I. I. Shmalhauzen.

Lying on the surface of the theory of biogeocoenology the principles of systematic aproach, dynamism, adaptatsion genesis should be naturally in equilibrium with others, such as extrapolation theoretical physics principles of uncertainty and comlimantarity of Niels Bohr as necessary tools for a profound knowledge of the nature of ecosystems. In revealing the organization and functioning of ecosystems, the fruitful principles are: the principle of their typology by A. L. Belgard (1970) for forest steppe, the principle of detailing of biogeocenosis structure by A. P. Travleyev (1973) and the principle of drawing up the periodic typological systems of ecological niches of biological species, parcels of forest ecosystems cybernetic schemes related to various phenomena and processes and so on.

Biogeocenosis, as a phenomenon of wildlife organization, is an elementary structural and functional unit of the biosphere; and biocenosis, respectively, is a unit of living matter on the planet by V. I. Vernadsky (1926).

Biogeocoenology, as a science, is still in its development stage, without clearly defined directions and concepts, contours of a picture of the world completeness in its methodology. In general picture of biogeocenotical research there are the following areas: 1) taxonomic (in accordance with the definition of species composition of organisms of different kingdoms of living nature); 2) factorial; 3) adaptable (concerning reactions to different impacts, adaptation and formation of ecomorphical composition); 4) spatial-dynamic (associated with the release of forms bodies in ecosystems and organisms, putting them in static and dynamic); 5) dynamically evolutionary, in which study multiscale spatial and temporal changes in the composition, structure, and insidebiogeocenotical and betweenbiogeocenotical relationships of organisms and, in general, betweenbiogeocenotical interactions; 6) biogeographic (according to spread of ecosystems); 7) evolutionary covering all manifestations of spatial and temporal variability of ecosystems from seasonal fluctuations to age-related changes; 8) interaсtive that combines all areas of research in a particular biogeocoenotical environment.

Named methodological problems of different levels and different volume make up only a small part of their descriptions and definitions that can be used to build the concepts of biogeocenology as a system of the ideas and principles of scientific vision of its essence. We consider the concepts as formed and incomplete, which are under development, a set of concepts, methods and principles of interpretation of certain phenomena, objects, areas of science and social movement or life. Concepts of biogeocenology as systems of view that combine different visions of its nature, can be differentiated and integrated into a single fragmented scientific pictures of the world. The main concepts we distinguish: systematic, thermodynamic, biotechnological, stereometric, geomorphological, geological, biogeochemical, adaptation genesis, evolutionary (paleontological), biogeographical, cybernetic. Within each concept there are three aspects: 1) general biogeocenotical regarding individualized ecosystems; 2) betweenbiogeocenotical regarding biogeocenotical cover or its parts; 3) planetary, biospheric, determined by biosphere significance of ecosystems.

Key words: biogeocenotical, biogeocenology, function, theory, methodology
 

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Zaitseva I. O., Povorotnaya M. M. Quantitative assessment of the functional connection between water content and hydrothermal factors of representatives of Acer L. generic complexes introduced into steppe zone

Зайцева І. О., Поворотня М. М. Кількісна оцінка впливу гідротермічних факторів на водний обмін деревних рослин роду Acer L. в умовах степової зони

DOI: 10.15421/031503

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The paper deals with the opportunities of using the analytical approach in order to solve the task of quantitative assessment of the leaves’ water content dependence on temperature and amount of precipitation by the example of ornamental tree and shrub plants – representatives of Acer L. generic complexes introduced into Steppe Pridneprovye.

In the drought conditions of steppe zone, the urgent problem in growing of valuable tree and shrub plants is the determination of the required amount of water for irrigation. This value depends on the degree of hydrophily of one or another species and on weather conditions throughout the period of vegetation, in particular, on the temperature conditions and amount of precipitation. As a criterion of functional state of plants in the conditions of hydrothermal stress, index of total water content in leaves is used in our work. At the same time, plants of various ecological groups feature the specific level of water content in leaves in optimal conditions of moistening; the higher level is observed for hydrophilic plants, and lower one for drought-resistant plants.

During the investigations long-term and deep droughts were observed in the vegetation period. Data of average air temperature (ti) and amount of precipitation per ten-day periods (Wi) were used for our analysis. For the mathematical modeling of the effect of these factors on the value of water content in leaves Θ the equation in the form of quadratic function has been developed which described the existing relationship between the parameters studied Θ=LW/t; it also included the ratios reflecting structural and functional peculiarities of plant species under study. Calculated numerical values of a, b and L ratios quantitatively characterize the specificity of species’ response to drought and agree well with the data on field resistance of studied species in the steppe zone.

Further studying of extreme point of the function i.е. value of the least amount of water required for life-sustaining activity of various plants, was carried out through partial derivative of the function Θ=f(W;t) on the temperature, equating it to zero. From the obtained equation Θ=LW/t + at - b sqrW have found the expression for calculation of the amount of water required to maintain the minimal water content in leaves for ten-day period, sufficient for the normal life-sustaining activity of plants, at the definite values of precipitation and temperature during the vegetation period: Wextr.= at2 / L.

Therefore, criterion Wextr. determines the low limit of homeostasis of plant tissues of the definite plant species in various temperature conditions. High values of Wextr. at optimal temperatures were obtained for species with low resistance to drought such as A. trautvеtteri (49,1 mm), A. ginnala (47,2 mm). Low values of Wextr. obtained for A. pseudoplatanus (11,4 mm), A. monspessulanum (17,4 мм) in the conditions of drought and excess temperatures, evidence resistance of these plants in the steppe zone. In extreme temperature conditions, index Wextr. reaches 80–100 mm of moisture per ten-day period in the species with the lowest resistance.

The offered criterion Wextr., as an index of functional dependence of water content in leaves on the temperature and amount of precipitation, can be used for predicting the resistance of plants and determination of the required irrigation regime in specific weather conditions of the vegetation period.

Key words: moisture regime, drought resistance, hydrothermal factors, nonlinear regression, mathematical modeling, introduced plants
 

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Samchuk A. I., Grodzinskaya G. A., Vovk K. V. Research on accumulation of macro- and microelements in leaves of trees in Kyiv megalopolis

Самчук А. І., Гродзинська Г. А., Вовк К. В. Акумуляція макро- і мікроелементів у листках різних деревних порід в умовах Київського мегаполісу 

DOI: 10.15421/031504

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The specific accumulation of macroelements and microelements in the leaves of different tree species in specific urban areas of the Kyiv megalopolis was investigated. The fallen leaves of Aesculus hippocastanum (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), species of genera Alder (Alnus), Maple (Acer), Birch (Betula), Poplar (Populus), Oak (Quercus), Viburnum (Viburnum) and Walnut (Yuglans) were selected to investigate. Also authors conducted geochemical studies of soils.

The following methods were used in the study: chemical, spectral analysis, atomic absorption analysis and method of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS).

Content rating of macroelements found the following laws: the leaves of the trees have the most accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Sodium and potassium, calcium and magnesium in freshly-fallen leaves of trees varies (0,02–0,08 %); (2,2–3,49 %); (14,5–15,0 %); (0,66–3,89 %) respectively; after winter there is removal of potassium in leaves of all species of trees, calcium thus virtually unchanged.

In the fallen poplar leaves that lay the winter there is a strong depletion of Mg (10 times) and increasing concentration of Na (2 times). Fallen leaves of birch are characterized by a significant reduction in P (14 times), Ca (5 times) and S (3 times), but have little accumulation of Mg (from 1.05 to 1.17 %). The depletion of Na (4 times) and the same enrichment in Mg is observed for typical oak leaves. For the maple leaf in the spring there is a moderate depletion (compared to autumn) all macroelements except phosphorus, for which there is an accumulation of 1.5 times.

It is established that the content of trace elements specific to each species of trees. Species of Betula are concentrators of Cu (180 mg / kg), Pb (20 mg / kg), Zn (280 mg / kg), of Yuglans sp. – Se (18 mg / kg), Quercus sp. – Mn (3110 mg / kg), V (12 mg / kg), Viburnum sp. – Zr (300 mg / kg). The behavior of trace elements authors divided into two groups. The first classified as chemical elements whose concentration after winter in fallen leaves almost constant (~ 3–5 %) – Ti, Zr, Mo, V; the second – whose concentration is significantly reduced (~ 25–30 %) – Cu, Zn , Mn, Pb, Se.

An important indicator is also the intensity of biological absorption of trace elements from the soil by plants. There is significant accumulation in comparison with ground in the leaves of the trees for Mn, V (Kn – 4–12), mean values are typical for Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb (Kn – 1–4), it is not accumulation for Ti, Zr, Cr, Se (Kn – 0,07–0,86). The exceptions are the leaves of birch, which have intensive enrichment in Cu (Kn = 11) and Zn (Kn = 9). Mobility of trace elements in the soil affects the possibility of accumulation by plants. The study found that the largest share accounts for relatively mobile forms that leach by the influence of weak acids, organic acids (40–50 %); less – for adsorbed by hydroxide (28–38 %). Share of soluble and ion-exchanging forms studied trace elements are 9–18 %. The soils on which species of birch grow have the greatest mobility of microelements, and hence their availability for plants. Humus content in the studied soils ranges from 4.21–6.41 %.

Key words: tree species, chemical compositions of leaves, macroelements, microelements, mobile forms of chemical elements
 

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Moskalets T. Z., Moskalets V. V. Population ecology and autoecology manifestations of modificational variability of genotypes tribe Triticeae in forest-steppe and polissya ecotypes

Москалець Т. З., Москалець В. В. Аутекологічні та демекологічні прояви модифікаційної здатності генотипів триби Triticeae лісостепового та поліського екотипів 

DOI: 10.15421/031505

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The tribe Triticeae of Forest-Steppe and Polissya ecotypes in aspect of the interaction of two systems: an organism (genotype)and the environment in population, auto- and synekology levels has been studied. The obtained fruition allows us to increase the productivity of agro-ecosystems in common get a stable crop productivity through greater relevance and adaptability of genotypes to environment conditions in specific ecotypes. Varieties and lines of triticale and wheat soft winter studied at different levels of integration, reveal their morphological, biological and ecological differences, whereby genotypes differentiated by the hyhro-morphibility – adaptability to moisture conditions, in particular: – hyhromorphics for conditions to deficiency and moderate (unstable) of moisture (HTC < 0.6 and < 1): Vivate Nosivske, Pshenychne (triticale semidwarf type of development); KC 14, KC 5, KC 1, KC 22, KC 16, KC 21 (wheat of semidwarf type of development):

– hyhromorphics for conditions of comfortable and excessive moisture (HTC = 1 and > 1,5): ДАУ 5, Ellada, Avhusto (triticale); КС 17, Л 4696/96 (wheat);

– hyhromorphics with highly display of adaptation to conditions of deficiency and moderate and also comfortable and excessive of moisture: Slavetne, Slavetne polipshene (triticale); Yuvivata 60, Nosshpa 100, Prydesnianska napivkarlykova, Zoriana Nosivska, KC 7 (wheat), allowed to get an idea of the diversity of ecological communities of winter triticale and wheat soft winter.

Long-term research of varieties and lines of triticale and wheat allows arranging them by the trofo-morphibility:

– mehatrophics – demanding for soil fertility and sensitive to the addition of mineral nutrients (triticale genotypes: Vivate Nosivske, Pshenychne, ДАУ 5, Chaian, Ellada, Chornoostyste; wheat genotypes: Nosshpa 100, Prydesnianska napivkarlykova, КС 14, КС 5, КС 1, КС 16, КС 21);

– mesotrophics – moderately demanding for soil fertility and occupy a middle position between oligotrophics and eutrophics (Avhysto, Yahyar, Zernookisne, Zoriana Nosivska, Yuvivata 60, Л 4696/96);
– oligomesotrophics – undemanding for soil fertility and for farming standards (Slavetne, Slavetne polipshene, ДАУ 5).
Trofomorphics differ from each other by specific and non-specific features of trophic needs. Triticale and wheat soft winter ecomorphics are divided by sensitivity to the length of daylight into:

– high-sensitive – genotypes with high yield potential and grain quality, including triticale: Vivate Nosivske; Pshenychne; wheat: Prydesnianska napivkarlykova, Nosshpa 100, КС 14, КС 5, КС 1, КС 21;

– midl-sensitive – genotypes with maximum yield under different sowing (Slavetne, Slavetne polipshene, ДАУ 5, Chaian, Chornoostyste; КС 22, КС 16);

– intermediate – genotypes that form high yield and grain quality under optimum sowing time: triticale (Avhusto, Yahuar, Ellada), wheat (Nosshpa 100, КС 1, КС 5, КС 17, КС 21, КС 22).

Triticale and wheat sowing is different by their variety. It has been established that megatrophics, such us: Vivate Nosivske, Pshenychne, ДАУ 5, Chaian, Chornoostyste, Nosshpa 100, Prydesnianska napivkarlykova, КС 1, КС 5, КС 14, КС 16, КС 21, КС 22) form a low yield and grain quality on depleted soils in organic matter and are not competitive towards weeds and pathogens of fungal diseases.

Key words: ecomorphics of Triticum aestivum (L.) and Triticosecale Witt., population ecology and autoecology manifestations
 

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Krokhmal I. I.Functional anatomy and morphology of leaf Campanula sibirica L.

Крохмаль И. И. Функциональная анатомия и морфология листа Campanula sibirica L.  

DOI: 10.15421/031506

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The functional anatomy and morphology of leaf Campanula sibirica L. in different habitat conditions are investigated: in the Donetsk Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine (Donetsk, south-east of Ukraine, steppe zone) and in the Crimea: 1) Range Echki-Dag (south-east coast of the Crimea), Kara-Oba; 2) Bakhchisarai, Calais. Comparison leaf parameters different versions of the experiment was carried out using a statistical test ANOVA.

Comparison of anatomical and morphological parameters of rosette leaves of C. sibirica in two localities in the Crimea showed that in arid conditions of the Crimea (Calais) increases the thickness of leaf, mesophyll, abaxial epidermis. The number of cells on the abaxial side of leaf is not changed, the number of stomata, epidermal-stomatal (SEI) and pore-stomatal (SPI) indices are decreased, while the stomatal size is increased.

It was found that in more arid growing conditions (Crimea, Calais) leaves of different formations C. sibirica are large values of specific leaf area (SLA), the stomatal size, lower values of leaf area (S), weight of dried leaf (M1) compared with Donetsk. Revealed that the responses to changing environment conditions are 1) to increase the number of links the functional leaf parameters and their closeness, 2) quantitative changes in stomatal-epidermal complex and the internal leaf anatomy. The most significant are the changes in stomatal complex, since it is linked with important adaptive traits of plants. In more severe conditions habitat of C. sibirica: 1) decreases palisade coefficient and stomatal density, increases their size with increases index (I) of rosette leaf; 2) significant changes occur in stomatal density on the abaxial side (increases) and stomatal length (decrease) with increases weight of cauline leaf, ratios M1/M, M1/S, leaf thickness, mesophyll thickness. The length of petiole of rosette leaf (Lp) is linked with leaf weight, M/S, tcm/tl. By increasing the length of the stomata (Ls) increases the specific leaf area (SLA). The length of the stomata (Ls) is positively correlated with leaf index, tsm/tl and tle/tl, negatively with tcm/tl, palisade coefficient (k). Stomatal pore-index (SPI), which is associated with a complex adaptive traits of plants, defining the strategy of their function, positively linked with tcm/tl.

The adaptive traits of plants C. sibirica at: 1) rosette leaves – increases mesophyll thickness, in particular columnar mesophyll, abaxial epidermis, specific leaf area (SLA), a decreases area and weight of leaf, length of the petiole, the number of stomata, stomatal pore- index (SPI) with a simultaneous increases stomatal length; 2) cauline leaves – increases mesophyll thickness, specific leaf area (SLA), a decreases area and weight of dried leaf, increases the stomatal width. The fact that the cauline leaves function and provide vital activity of plant in the most extreme temperature and humidity period causes a greater number relations of their functional parameters and closeness of links compared with rosette. In more arid habitat conditions leaves of different formations C. sibirica are characterized by high photosynthetic energy use efficiency (PEUE), and low water use efficiency (WUE).

Key words: functional anatomy, stomatal-epidermal complex, functional morphology, leaf, adaptive trait
 

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Blinkova O. I. Analysis of synergies between the vegetation cover and the intensity of outwash in mountain conditions

Блінкова O. I. Аналіз взаємозв’язку рослинного покриву та інтенсивності водної ерозії в гірських умовах 

DOI: 10.15421/031507

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The case study of the most degraded catch land of the Southern macroslope of the Crimean mountains by the method of ecological profiling the growth of anthropogenic (man-induced) transformation of vegetation cover depending on the intensity of outwash and cleveness of slope is shown.

Key words: outwash, vegetational cover, ecological factors
 

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ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF PHYTOINDICATION / ЕКОЛОГІЧНІ ПРОБЛЕМИ ФІТОІНДИКАЦІЇ


Buzhdygan O. Y., Rudenko S. S., Kostyshyn S. S. Habitat conditions that drive plant traits in grasslands: phytoindicative analytical approach

Buzhdygan O. Y., Rudenko S. S., Kostyshyn S. S. Habitat conditions that drive plant traits in grasslands: phytoindicative analytical approach

DOI: 10.15421/031508

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Plant communities of the 31 pastoral grasslands have been assessed using the phytoindicative analytical method of Ellenberg (1974) in order to compare the community reactions on the habitat-climatic and habitat-edaphic conditions of the following 3 physic-geographical zones of Chernivtsi Region in Ukraine: Plain, Foothills and Mountains. An average realized niche of each plant species has been assessed along the gradients of the study factors of habitat-climatic conditions, such as: insolation, thermal regime and the degree of continentality, as well as the following habitat-edaphic conditions: the soil moisture, acidity, and nitrogen content. The deviations of the pastoral plant communities from their potential climax states have been assessed.

Key words: phytoindication, phytocenosis, pasture, grassland, Ellenberg’s analytical method
 

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ZOOCENOSES AS A COMPONENT OF BIOGEOCENOSIS / ЗООЦЕНОЗ ЯК КОМПОНЕНТ БІОГЕОЦЕНОЗУ


Mustafayeva G. A. The trophic links of Aphelinids (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) and phytophages (Homoptera: Coccoidea, Aleurodidea, Aphidoidea) in Azerbaijan

Мустафаева Г. А. Трофические связи афелинид (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) с фитофагами (Homoptera: Coccoidea, Aleurodidea, Aphidoidea) в Азербайджане  

DOI: 10.15421/031509

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Aphelinids are parasites of many sucking insect pests. They are known as effective entomophages of many harmful sucking insects – coccidae, aphids, aleurodids, they are successfully used in biological control.

Use of natural resources of useful entomophages against pests is of great theoretical and practical importance. However, the entomophagous natural resources, including aphelinids, are still little used in integrated systems of plant protection against pests. The study of the host and the parasite relationships allows to evaluate the prospects of their use for pest control.

The aim of the research is to study the aphelinids (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) in Azerbaijan, as a basis for the development of ways of their practical application in the integrated plant protection against pests.

As a result of long-term research in Azerbaijan it had been registered 61 species of aphelinids belonging to 4 subfamilies and 15 genera. These parasites were derived from scale insects, soft scales, aphids, aleurodids, etc. The table of trophic links of aphelinids (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae,) and their hosts, as well as a list of genera and species of aphelinids with hosts – phytophages has been compiled.

Aphelinids are mainly related to Homoptera (Hemiptera). The larvae of aphelinids are internal, rarely external parasites of coccidia (mainly scale insects), aphids, aleurodids, rarely other insects. The trophic relations of aphelinids with the hosts are established. From the 61 species identified for Azerbaijan the aphid parasites (Aphidinea) are 14 species of 2 genera, scale insects parasites (Diaspididae) are 30 species of 9 genera, soft scales and pulvinary parasites are 11 species of two genera, parasites of aleurodids (Aleyrodinea) are 5 species of 2 genera, 1 genus 1 species is associated with mealybugs. 1 species is a parasite of Orthoptera. Entomophages of the genera Aphytis Howard, Coccobius Ratseburg, Ablerus Howard, Pterotrix Westwood, Archenomus Howard, Hispaniella Mercet., Aspidiotiphagus Howard, Diaspiniphagus Silvestri, Encarsia Foerster are the parasites of scale insects. The parasites of the genera Coccophagus Westwood, Marietta Motschylsky Coccidae are associated with soft scales, the parasites of the genera Aphelinus Dalman, Protaphelinus Mackauer are associated with aphids.

Marietta picta (Andre) except soft scales is also a parasite of Plancoccus citri Risso (mealybugs). Aphelinid Centrodora amoena Foerster of the Centrodora genus is associated with Orthoptera. By the type of trophic links the aphelinids in Azerbaijan are divided into the following groups:

1. Monophags – infecting one, rarely two, three closely related species of the hosts. These include: Eretmocerus haldemani Howard , Aphelinus fulvus (Yasnoch), Aphelinus mali (Haliday), Aphytis chilensis Howard, Aphytis maculicornis Masi, Aphytis chrysomphalu Merc., Coccobius granati Yasnoch and Mustafayeva sp.n., Coccobius pistasicolus (Yasnoch), Coccophagus insidiator Dalman, Coccophagus proximus Yasnoch, Coccophagus paleolecanii Yasnoch, Pteroptrix macropedicellata (Malac), Encarsia leucaspidis Merc., Centrodora amoena Foerster.

2. Oligophages infecting hosts are related to various genera and a subfamilies. These include 44 species.

3. Polyphages that infect hosts from different families are related to only a few types: Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker), Aphelinus chaonia Walker., Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Graw.

In the fauna of Azerbaijan aphelinids the monophages (14 species) and the polyphages (3) are characterized by only a few species, the majority of the species (44 species) are oligophages.

Key words: Aphelinids, trophic links, monophags, oligophages, polyphages
 

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ECOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА БІОХІМІЯ


Ushakovа G. A., Shiyntum H. N. Evolutionary progress in the functions of metallothioneins in the ever changing ecosystems

Ушакова Г. О., Шиинтум O. Н. Еволюційний прогрес у функціях металотіонеінів у екосистемах, що постійно змінюються

DOI: 10.15421/031510

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Metallothioneins (MTs) exist in various organisms ranging from some prokaryotes to eukaryotes and mammals. MTs are low molecular weight proteins (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da), highly rich in cysteine residues and effectively bind with metals. MTs have the capacity to bind both physiological (such as zinc, copper, selenium) and xenobiotic (such as cadmium, mercury, silver, arsenic) heavy metals through the thiol group of its cysteine residues, which represent nearly 30 % of its constituent amino acid residues. Their combination with heavy metals gives rise to metal-thiolate clusters. It has been suspected that the presence of cysteine in MT is necessary for its functioning and that MT itself is essential for life, modulating complex diseases and the immune system. All different types of MTs are classified with respect to so many factors mainly in groups I and II. There are four main distinguished sub families of the mammalian MT gene families; MT-1 (subtypes A, B, E, F, G, H, L, M, X), MT-2, MT-3, MT-4. They are synthesised primarily in the liver and kidneys. Their production is dependent on availability of the dietary minerals, as zinc, copper and selenium, and the amino acids histidine and cysteine. The rise of these sub families can be attributed to the different functions fulfilled by them. The absence of one defined primary common function could certainly be the reason for serial duplications that gave rise to the respective isoforms. The evolution of MT has been so important to science that they have been considered valid biomarkers in medicine and environmental studies. MT is not limited to the human system, it has also been found in other mammals of the animal kingdom vertebrates (such as the chicken, Gallus gallus, or the mammalian Mus musculus), in higher plants (such as Pisum sativum, Triticum durum, Zea mays, Quercus suber), in protozoa (ex. the ciliate Tetrahymena genera), in yeast (such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans), in invertebrates (such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the insect Drosophila melanogaster, the mollusc Mytilus edulis, or the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and in many prokaryotes (such as the cyanobacteria Syneccococus spp). The MTs from this diverse taxonomic range represent a high-heterogeneity sequence (regarding molecular weight and number and distribution of Cys residues) and do not show general homology; in spite of this, homology is found inside some taxonomic groups (such as vertebrate MTs).

In this review, we will be looking at the evolution of MTs in respective organisms and the different roles they perform in each of their respective locations in these organisms. We will specifically look at the following factors; evolution of the genetic constitution of MTs and their structural composition and functions.

Key words: Metallothioneins (MTs), structure, classification, evolution, genes, function
 

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ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF MICROORGANISMS / ЕКОЛОГІЧНІ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ МІКРООРГАНІЗМІВ


Shekhovtseva O. G., Maltceva I. A. Influence of chloride and sulfate ions on the composition and the biomass of soil algae in the soils of Mariupol city urban ecosystems

Шеховцева О. Г., Мальцева І. А. Вплив вмісту іонів хлоридів і сульфатів у ґрунті урбоекосистем м. Маріуполя на склад і біомасу ґрунтових водоростей  

DOI: 10.15421/031511

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In the article the results of the estimation of composition of salts and an activity of chlorid-ion and sulfat-ion in soils of the steppe area of Ukraine (by example of Mariupol) are presented. The author was conducting the researches on the territory of Mariupol city during a period from 2008 to 2011. The urban soils have some specific properties which are the result of anthropogenic transformation.

Now all around the world the special attention is given to biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems, which are an important feature of the natural resources and the main sign of trends in their development. The processes of urbanization of natural landscapes have caused some changes of biological factor of the soil formation and also of the formation of artificial ecological systems. These systems are characterized by the infringement of their functioning.
The alteration of chloride and sulfate ions have been analyzed in comparison with zonal soils of background areas in connection with possible changes of species composition and structure of groupings of soil algae for which the top horizons of soil are the main place for existence. The given researches showed that chloride salts are prevailing in composition of soluble salts.

Species composition and indication properties of soil algae as biological pollution indicators of the protected of the urbanized soils have been studied. The greatest quantity of kinds of seaweed is allocated in zonal soils. In samples of soil Mariupol by direct count the 86 algae species of Chlorophyta (43 %), Cyanophyta (25 %), Xanthophyta (16 %), Bacillariophyta (13 %) and Eustigmatophyta (3 %) have been found. The green and blue-green algae were found to be prevailed, it was proved that they are the basis of dominate species complex.

Structural features of algae soil in habitats with various character of action of factors of urbanized environment are subjected to benchmark analysis. There were examined the formation processes of biological indexes depending on the soluble salts of soil profile and also an influence of these factors on ecological conditions of urban algae landscapes.

The level of anthropogenic load of pollutants has been determined. It is the evidence of negative influence of technogenic loading, in particular process of the accumulation of sulfates, chlorides and deterioration of physical properties of soil on the variety of soil algae species.

Some trends can be easily interpreted on the basis of differential accumulation of biomass and the expected impact of the sharp decline in this indicator. If only the abiotic factors associated with monitoring biological indicators of soil, it should be equivalent to dependence, as some indicators, being next to the other, may be affected in certain environmental conditions. The results of the chemical indicator researches participating in processes of biomass transformation of algae can explain the essence of occurring processes of changes for forecasting of degradation of soil under the influence of anthropogenic influence. The change of integral indexes of biological activity can serve as the degree of the anthropogenic affecting soils. The results of studies of chlorides and sulfates in soils of urban ecosystems, their influence on the composition and biomass of soil algae are described. Fluctuation ranges in biomass of algae have been registered. The biomass of algae correlates with chlorides (r = - 0,90) and sulfates (r = - 0,54) in soil.

The results of the research can be widely applied to evaluate the state of the ecosystem of these variables and they can be used as bio-reflecting the reactions of anthropogenically damaged habitats on soil salt content of chlorides and sulfates as pollution.

Key words: urbanized ecosystem, soil, chlorides, sulfates, alga soil, biomass of algae
 

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Moroz O. M., Zvir G. I., Hnatush S. O. Pigments synthesis by hotolithotrophic sulfur bacteria Lamprocystis sp. Ya-2003 under the influence of heavy metals salts

Мороз О. М., Звір Г. І., Гнатуш С. О. Утворення пігментів фотолітотрофними сіркобактеріями Lamprocystis sp. Ya-2003 за впливу солей важких металів  

DOI: 10.15421/031512

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Photolithotrophic sulfur bacteria at presence in medium H2S as electron donor and СО2 as electron acceptor at anaerobic conditions carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis using light as energy source. Main photosynthetic active pigments of purple sulfur bacteria are bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids. Biosphere pollution by heavy metals negatively influence on living components of biocenoses. Synthesis of pigments by purple sulfur bacteria and their spectral characteristics under the influence of heavy metals are studied insufficiently. The aim of work was to investigate the influence of some bivalent metals (nickel, cobalt, iron and zinc) ions on pigments synthesis by purple sulfur bacteria cells of Lamprocystis genus, isolated from enriched by hydrogen sulfide water of Yavoriv Lake. Bacteria Lamprocystis sp. Ya-2003 was cultivated under anaerobic conditions on lighting in van Niel medium for 10 days. To study the influence of heavy metals ions on quality and quantity composition of photosynthetic pigments the cells were sediment by centrifugation (centrifuge ОS-6M) at 4025 g during 30 min and incubated during 1 h with metals salts: NiCl2, CoCl2, FeCl2 × 4 H2O, ZnCl2 × 7 H2O, at concentrations: 0; 0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 4 mM. Biomass was determined by turbidymetric method, absorption spectra and pigments content in purple sulfur bacteria cells – by spectrophotometric method. To obtaining pigment extracts the cells were dried at temperature 40 °С and destructed by rubbing with quarts sand. Pigments extraction carried out by mixture ethanol and acetone (1:1 v/v) to complete colorlessing of sediment. Obtaining extracts were using to registration of absorption spectra. Separation of pigments mixture was carried out by chromatography on silufol plates (“Sorbfil”, Russia) in the upflow of the system of solvents petrol : acetone : petroleum ether : hexane (10:10:3:10 v/v). Carotenoids were eluted from silikagel by an acetone or petroleum ether, bacteriochlorophyll – by an ethanol. Pigments identification carried out on coloring, by the sizes of Rf and basic maximums of absorption at a corresponding wave-length. Absorption spectra of extracted pigments of phototrophic sulfur bacteria were determined in the range of lengths of waves from 350 to 800 нм with the use of spectrophotometer SP-46. It was established that photosynthetic purple sulfur bacteria Lamprocystis sp. Ya-2003 contain carotenoids of spirilloxanthin row, in particular, spirilloxanthin, likopin and rhodopin, and also bacteriochlorophyll a. Under the influence of 0.5–4 мМ salts of nickel, cobalt, iron (ІІ) and zinc there are an insignificant changes of absorption spectra of extracted pigments. Under the influence of 1−4 mM Ni2+, 2−3 mM Fe2+ and 3−4 mM Zn on the curves of 2+absorption spectra appear maximums in area of 500 nm, 1−2 mM Ni2+ and 0.5−3 мМ Fe2+ − in area of 600 nm. Negative influence of nickel, cobalt, iron (ІІ) and zinc ions at the concentrations of 2.5–4 мМ on pigments formation by cells of Lamprocystis sp. Ya-2003 is discovered. Inhibition by bivalent metals ions of pigments synthesis in purple sulfur bacteria is a considerable obstacle for realization by them of natural detoxication of the lighted zones of technogenic reservoirs from high-toxic hydrogen sulfide in the process of his use as electrons donor of anoxygenic photosynthesis.
Key words: photolithotrophic sulfur bacteria, pigments, heavy metals.
 

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PROTECTION OF HUMAN HEALTH / ОХОРОНА ЗДОРОВ’Я ЛЮДИНИ


Lykholat T. Yu., Lykholat O. A., Shevchenko T. M., Sayfieva N. P. Antioxidant system in system in the organs of different ade rats exposed to exogenous estrogens

Лихолат Т. Ю., Лихолат О. А., Шевченко Т. Н., Сайфиева Н. П. Состояние антиоксидантной системы в органах крыс разного возраста, подвергшихся воздействию экзоэстрогенов

DOI: 10.15421/031513

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Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in the world. It is a leader in cancer incidence structure of the female population in the most economically developed countries. For example, It was estimated that almost 1.7 million cases of female breast cancer were diagnosed worldwide, corresponding to a rate of 43 per 100,000 and about 522,000 females (13 per 100,000 populations) have died from breast cancer globally during 2012. Deaths of women from breast cancer has increased more than 2.5 times over the past 10 years and won first place.

Nutrition makes 30–35 % of the risk factors that promote occurrence of tumors. Products containing veterinary preparations is extremely dangerous for human health: hormonal growth promoters – stilbenes, steroids possess carcinogenic activity to cause a violation of puberty and reproductive capacity. Hormones are not completely destroyed by heat treatment products, so remain, though sometimes in smaller doses in meat, milk, eggs, vegetables and fruits. Steroid hormones are destroyed by heat treatment less all. Tumour biology plays important role in breast cancer survival.

The aim was to study the state of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in the organs of rats of different ages exposed to exogenous estrogens to determine the trigger mechanisms for the development of tumors.

Alimentary estrogen exposure caused an increased lipid peroxidation in animals in pubertal period and mature females. There have been varying degrees of peroxidation intensification depending on the age and organ specificity: the highest elevation of control indexes was noted in blood serum. The kidneys were the greatest resistance to the identified exogenous estrogens action. At females in pubertal period prooxidant reactions of excessive response force in the brain and liver of mature animals.

In the kidney of female from experimental groups found decrease in the content of reduced glutathione indicates a risk of disruption to the detoxification system. This may lead to an accumulation of free radicals that are initiating factor of proliferative processes. The concentration of reduced glutathione in the brain tissue is sufficiently robust indicator. Therefore, reducing the level of the peptide in the brain of rats in the prepubescent period is a negative predictor of integral afferent system destruction.

There was a discrete organ changes in the activity of enzymes of antioxidant protection depended on the age of the animals and indicated on imbalance of glutathione system enzymes works. Since the glutathione system is involved in inactivation of estrogens by their conjugation reactions catalyzed by glutathione transferase reduction in the activity of the enzyme may lead to the accumulation of highly intermediate metabolites and damage of intracellular structures, primarily DNA.

Imbalance of unit of superoxiddismutase – glutathione peroxidase results in an accumulation of peroxides, which is an indicator of development of endogenous intoxication, more pronounced in females pubertal period. Admission of hormonal drug with food caused changes in indicators of prooxidant – antioxidant systems followed by the defeat of signaling pathways of transfer information.

Similar phenomena may further to become triggers of compensatory mechanisms potential reduce, in particular adaptation and apoptosis with followed amplification of proliferation, which, together with the direct genotoxic action of exogenous estrogens are an important pathogenic link in carcinogenesis and the development of the primary tumor, the further progression of breast tumors.

Key words: steroid hormones, TBA-active products, the activity of glutathione transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant activity
 

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SHORT REPORTS / КОРОТКІ ПОВІДОМЛЕННЯ


Tarakhkalo I. A. Revisiting the natural-reserved fund of Lugansk region

Тарахкало И. А. К вопросу о состоянии природно-заповедного фонда Луганской области

DOI: 10.15421/031514

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It was considered the impact of the active destructive processes on objects of natural-reserved fund in a difficult situation in the southeast of Lugansk region. The analysis of the biogeocoenosis damage degree in this area was carried out.

In connection with the difficult situation in the east of Ukraine the destructive anthropogenic processes damage has increased significantly. The natural-reserved fund of Lugansk region was endangered. In this situation damage assessment to forest vegetations, whose origin in this territory is largely artificial, and not disposed to natural regeneration in these growing conditions, is of particular value (Travleev A. P., Travleev L. P., 1988; Travleev A. P., 2004).

Due to sharp decline of forest vegetation on the planet, industrial pollution of air, soil and water resources, implication of forests, as a stabilizing factor in the natural environment, is growing. Solving such tasks as rational use of natural resources, ensuring the ecological balance of the biosphere and creating favorable living environment depends largely on correct forest exploitation and protection.

Pyrogenic processes are the determining factor affecting formation and change of forest biocenosis. Biogeocenosis changes often occur under the influence of the pyrogenic factor and the proportion of its influence rises sharply in the conflict zone. Uncontrolled pyrogenic environmental impact causes serious damage to ecosystems, reducing the qualitative and species composition of forest reserves and it`s ecological functions, resulting in significant economic losses.

For acquisition of information about the area and the extent of biogeocoenosis damage on the selected sites we have chosen the visual estimation method (visual inspection without detailed assessment), because obtaining more accurate information is difficult for the moment, due to the related risks of the current situation. We consider damaged biogeocoenoses as well as the cause and nature of the damage and the damage degree. We define the causes of damage as the disturbances resulting from anthropogenic, predominantly military actions. We also define the degree of damage as the percentage-based share of the destroyed plant community on areas of study. The territory of Severodonetsk and Stanichno-Lugansk forest husbandry and hunting farms has been considered as the subjects. We have investigated forestry as a whole, as well as particular areas, to which it was possible to access. The Novozvanovskiy and Badger Draw landscape reserves and also Pecan Grove Closed Wood are the objects of natural-reserved fund, which we have studied as a whole. Likewise we partly investigated Derkul Ichthyological Reserve, Sharov Kut Landscape Reserve and Peschanoie Natural Landmark.

In the investigated protected objects some areas completely destroyed by pyrogenic processes and the landscape transformed into the so-called “moon” landscape as a result of shellbursts. The greatest degree of damage as a result of the investigation, we had found in the Pecan Grove Forest Reserve with a total area of 351.7 hectares. Landscape of Severodonetsk forest husbandry, which is attached to the combat zone average hit a third. This is related to the duration of the ongoing fighting in the territories clashes. In Stanichno Luhansk forest husbandry and hunting farms economy, nearly destroyed some areas Derkul ichthyological reserve and landscape reserve Sharov Kut. In the studied areas of natural protected sites extent of the damage resulting from visual inspection of 100 %.

As a result of military operation in the Lugansk region, in a relatively short period from mid-2014 to the beginning of 2015, only according to our research, it has been destroyed 260.4 hectares of nature-reserved fund of the region, which in turn indicates a very intense pace of destruction. With due consideration of the complexity of growing woodlands in this area and "moon" landscape formation, their future restoration is extremely difficult.

At the moment, talk about the overall biogeocoenosis damage assessment in the area of the anti-terrorist operation is still early and extremely difficult, by reasons of military operation is not completed and secure access to these objects is not provided. But preliminary data suggest the critical rate of destruction of natural-reserved fund, and attracting more attention and resources to this issue even now is imperative.

Key words: destructive, pyrogenic processes, forestry, biogeocoenosis damage, natural-reserved fund
 

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