2013, Vol. 24. #3-4

 

 

THEORETICAL ISSUES OF ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOCENOLOGY / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ ЕКОЛОГІЇ ТА БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЇ

Боговін А. В. Оцінка ступеня порушення фіторізноманіття антропогенно трансформованих екосистем

Bogovin A. V. Degree of phytodiversity disturbance of anthropogenic transformed ecosystems assessment

 

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Increase of negative anthropogenic influence on natural ecosystems that creates crisis conditions for biotic systems and their biodiversity as recourse base of biosphere and form of living matter existence on the planet is mentioned in the article. According to condition of present anthropogenic transformation of ecosystems author marks out 7 categories of biodiversity: 1) unaffected normal; 2) spare normal; 3) local normal; 4) practically normal or hidden abnormal; 5) obvious abnormal; 6) agrotransformed; 7) anthropogenic converted. It is shown that in conditions of global anthropogenic load for establishment of disturbance (decomposition) degree and allowable thresholds of anthropogenic load on biodiversity besides traditional phytocoenotic, physiognomic, floristic-individualistic and ecomorphic methods of analysis genetic physiological and coenotic species reactions to tame or disturbed ecosystems i.e. their hemerobe must be also taken into consideration .

On the ground of literary data generalization author cites hemerobe species classification and gives detailed description of each species group according their belonging to degree and nature of edaphons disturbance, anthropogenic transformed landscapes elements, adaptability to ecologic conditions of inhabitation and their man-impact tolerance.

Degree of phytodiversity decomposition and its belonging to corresponding anthropogenic transformed category is shown on the ground of 25-year researches in monitoring stationary experiment in National Research Centre “Institute of Agriculture of the NAAS” (northern part of right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine ) by example of serial stages in seral range of spontaneous reconstitution of natural grass ecosystems on former arable lands with using indices of hemerobe species.

On basis of count of vascular plants of different hemerobe groups correlation in biotic complex indices of phytodiversity decomposition that allow to appraise the condition of ecosystems impartially and plan effective ways of their improving and using are determined. This is important for rehabilitation and protection of biodiversity as a principal resource basis of biosphere, dynamism and forms of the living matter on the planet. It is noted that there are not much experimental data in this concept so far though indicated problem has assumed great importance at present and is worth further development.

Key words: phytodiversity, anthropogenic transformation, hemerobe, destry koefitsienttion venoses, environment.
 

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Царик Й. В. Популяційний підхід до розв’язання актуальних питань функціонування екосистем і збереження біотичного різноманіття

Tsaryk Y. V. Population approach to the solving of actual problems of ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation

 

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This work is dedicated to the adoption of population approach during the research of functions of biogeocoenotic systems under the changeable environmental conditions. It is proposed also to use consortive analysis in addition to the population approach with the purpose of selection of markers which can indicate the condition of ecosystems. The attention is given to the importance of conservation of population diversity and habitats as the basic necessity for species existence.

Population approach should be divided into two separate parts: the first one is a population approach during the problem solving of ecosystem functioning (consortions, biogeocoenoses), and the second one is a population approach during the biodiversity conservation on the population level.

We haven’t emphasized what kind of population (coenopopulation or natural-historical) we take into account during the analysis of ecosystem functioning. The use of population approach to the investigation of phytocoenoses let us got data about the role of their separate components in the forming of community structure, their spatio-temporal organization, age and local changes, reactions on the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors, persistency, stability, forecast their future, and find out some mechanisms of forming of phytocoenoses during the primary successions, as well as degressive and demutation changes (Tsaryk, 1993).

Four groups of populations within phytocoenosis were picked out on the basis of analysis of its population structure and strategy of populations. They are as follows: leading, stabilizing, supplemental, and casual (Zhilyayev, Tsaryk, 1993). No less important ecological problem is the search of biomarkers of ecosystems status of different hierarchy. We may suggest that both elements of ecosystem (individuals, populations, biocoenoses, ecotopes) and processes in it might be biomarkers of ecosystems. Under the term of “ecosystem status” we understand its modern structure organization, functioning and the future perspectives (Tsaryk, Tsaryk, 2008). It would be well to point out that the problem of searching of biomarkers is exceptionally difficult, because on the basis of analysis of elements and processes we must draw a conclusion about the system status of higher hierarchy. In essence, the picked out groups of populations of phytocoenosis, on our mind, might serve as biomarkers of biogeocoenoses status.

The second aspect of population approach is used during the elaboration of effective ways of population diversity conservation as a part of biotic diversity. Conservation of population diversity as the basis for species and ecosystem existing is important to understand that none of the populations can exist out of the habitat. Population can inhabit different habitats. This case is peculiar to metapopulation (population of populations or population of particular populations) (Tsaryk, Kyyak, 2005, 2009).

It’s important to draw attention on “ecotone habitats” in the nature conservation practice. Since their structure and functioning need a special discussion, so the conservation of their species diversity needs special approaches. The loss of habitats is the main factor of population elimination. We can mention several variants of habitat loss: loss of habitat quality, quantity loss (area shrinking), loss of connection between the habitats, and territorial integrity loss (habitat fragmentation).

Use of population approach during the analysis of autotrophic blocks of ecosystems (biogeocoenoses) might be useful for discovering of delicate mechanisms of their functioning under the modern conditions of anthropogenic pressure, and can be used as markers of modern status of ecological systems. Bringing consortive analysis into the population approach let us find out the structural and functional organization of ecosystems, discover mechanisms of persistency, stability, succession changes of biogeocoenotic systems. Conservation of population diversity as a basis of species existence cannot function properly without the discovering of organization peculiarities of their habitats, degradation reasons, and role in the guarantee of heredity information transfer between the structural elements of metapopulations and functioning of metacommunities.

Key words: coenopopulation, natural-historical population, metapopulation, habitat, consortive analysis, ecosystem condition, markers, biodiversity.
 

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ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCIENCE/ ЕКОЛОГІЧНЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО

Нікорич В., Польчина С., Шиманський В., Скиба С. Варіації морфогенетичних особливостей бурувато-підзолистих ґрунтів (Albeluvisols) Передкарпаття залежно від типу біогеоценозу

Nikorych V., Pol`chyna S., Szymanski W., Skiba S. Variations of the morphogenetic features of the Precarpathian`s brownish-podzolic soils (Albeluvisols) depending on the biogeocenosis type

 

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The aim of this research was to identify variations of the morphogenetic features of the Precarpathian`s brownish-podzolic soils (Albeluvisols) depending on the biogeocenosis type. The morphology of the 20 soil profiles in the Precarpathians in Ukraine and the Carpathian Foothills in Poland was analyzed. Factors and conditions for the formation of these soils were studied. Macro- and micromorphological studies of conventional soil science techniques have been conducted.

Cluster analysis (Ward’s method using software packages Statistica 8) for the mathematical interpretation of the data was applied. The quality attributes of the soil in the cluster analysis were converted according to the relative point scale: soil texture, the dominant type of structure, and consistence (rated from 1 to 4 types and subtypes of the selected features according to the range found in the studied soils). The presence and quantity of the roots, nodules and cutans, as well as the degree of different types of gleysation within the profile were converted according to the same technique: from 0 to 4 (0 – feature or pedofeature is missing; 1 – very poor expression or single content; 2 – weak expression or little content; 3 – average expression or average content; 4 – pronounced feature or high content). Some features (depth of occurrence of upper boundary of gleyic horizon in cm and thickness of A, AE, and E horizons in cm) were characterized by actual data, which were included into the matrix. The diagnostic features of the studied soils were as follows: 1) bleached eluvial and darkened illuvial parts of the profile; 2) domination of light grey and especially brown colors; 3) loamy texture; 4) domination of the angular and subangular structure; 5) dense consistence; 6) presence of the albeluvic tonguing; 7) Fe-Mn nodules (especially in Bt and BC horizons); 8) clay cutans and their stagnic color pattern.

It is determined that the majority of soils within the Precarpathians belong to the profile-differentiating group and the edaphotop PIY-9/UK-IF-KA (near Piylo, Kalush district, Ivano-Frankivsk region) is the most similar to the archetype of the brownish-podzolic soils.

The analysis of the micromorphological properties of the studied soils regardless their geographical location confirmed their genetic similarity, but they have some variations associated with the heterogeneity of parents materials, variety of the profile gleysation and type of biogeocenosis.

The obtained results show that all studied soils were grouped into two irregular clusters. In first cluster, only the GB-1/PL-MP-MY profile was present due to lack of gleysation. In second cluster, the rest soil profiles (19) were grouped what indicates the genetic similarity of these soils. Analysis of second cluster revealed the tendency to the soil grouping according to the biogeocenosis type and geographic location of the soils and heterogeneity of parent material were less important.

The results showed that soils covered by spruce formed special subcluster with minimal distance and maximal similarity (Sto-2/UA-CE-ST, Kra-11/UA-CE-ST, Roj-16/UA-IF-RO). This type of biogeocenosis is not natural for the Precarpathians. Micromorphological properties of the studied soils covered by spruce were very similar. The soils showed the best developed depletion zones within their surface horizon when compared with other studied edaphotops.

Soils of other forest biogeocenoses also showed similarity (low distance between clusters) but not so strong as it was in spruce biogeocenosis. It is possible to assume that all forest brownish-podzolic soils do not significant difference at the macro- and micromorphological level. Anthropogenic transformed soils also showed the tendency to similarity between them. This is related to similarity of their surface horizons at the macromorphological (e.g. thickness of A horizons, color, structure) and micromorphological (fragments of clay coatings and clay infillings incorporated to the surface horizon due to ploughing) levels.


Key words: Albeluvisols, brownish-podzolic soils, cluster analysis, biogeocenosis, morphological features
 

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Новицкий М. Л. Структурно-агрегатный состав сульфидных пород и техногенных субстратов на шахтных отвалах

Novitsky M. L. Structural-aggregation composition of sulfide rocks and technogenic substrates on mine mouldboards

 

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The detailed researches in determination of granulometric, microaggregation and structural composition of sulfide mountain rocks, carbonate loam and poured on them fertile soil (chernozemic soil, alluvial soil) on the flat and trapezoidal mine mouldboards of Western Donbass recultivated by the method of strewing sulfide mountain rocks with carbonate and fertile ingredients haven`t been made.

The aim of the fulfilled researches was to determine macro- and microstructural composition and to evaluate the aggregation composition and potential possibility to structural formation of sulfide mountain rocks and technogenic substrates on mine mouldboards of Western Donbass.

The study level of structural-aggregation composition of sulfide rocks and substrates of technogenic landscapes has been given in the article; the importance of evaluation of aggregation condition and potential possibilities to structural formation of sulfide mountain rocks and substrates on mine mouldboards has been show.

The complex characteristics and evaluation of granulometric, microaggregation and structural composition of rocks with pirit and technogenic substrates on flat mouldboards of Western Donbass has been given in the results of detailed researches. It is determined that increasing the part of carbonate in sulfide mountain rocks CaCO3 in mixture with small amount of fertile ingredients optimizes the correlation of sand, dust and silt and increases the content of silt in technogenic substrates. The high microstructure and aggregation of silt in melkozem (substrates and mountain rocks) has been determined. It was established that except silt some small and medium parts of dust were drawn in aggregation. Aggregation of sand was low. The best indexes of microaggregation belongs to carbonate mountain rocks in mixture with alluvial soil.

It has been exposed a lot of questions as for the good microaggregation of melkozem in sulfide rock. From the one hand, a very low content of extractable carbon (0.08–0.15 %) and humus (0.13–0.20 %) in the rock, its poverty in silt (so in secondary minerals), calcium and absence of plants` roots in the rock didn`t help to the aggregation of its mechanic elements. From the other hand, metamorphic sulfide rock of Carboniferous is reach in carbon (5–7 %), coal parts contaminant, sesquioxides (Fe2O3 – up to 17 % and Al2O3 – up to 8 %). In the noncalcareous sulfide rock there are 200–600 mg/kg of mobile iron and 30-350 mg/kg of aluminum, 3–6 mg-eq per 100 gr basis of exchangeable calcium and 9–13 % of silt. It`s clear that all these indexes mostly were amendments of the different deposits of the previous geological epochs. Probably, during removing the coal rock on the surface all rehearsed indexes so as crushing mechanism have the great importance in the processes of rock aggregation.

The most important factors of argillite aggregation are dressing of general carbon, one-and-a-half oxides and also mobile forms of aluminium and iron, presence of silt and dust parts, calcium in sorbtion complex and intensive mechanisms of crushing during removing the coal rock on the surface.

Technogenic substrates and sulfide rocks are characterized by high content of agronomic valuable aggregations (1.0–0.25 mm), good structure and aggregation condition and also high level of water-resistance of aggregations according to scale N. A. Kachinsky and AFI, but low level according to total specific surface of aggregations.

The whole evaluation of micro and macro structural condition of technogenic substrates and sulfide mountain rocks allows approximately to determine the parameters of structure of these formations and compares with estimated parameters of corresponding zonal soils.

Key words: : mine mouldboards, sulfide rock, technogenic substrates, aggregations, structural composition
 

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ECOLOGICAL PHYTOCENOLOGY AND GEOBOTANY / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА ФІТОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ ТА ГЕОБОТАНІКА

Гончаренко І. В., Ігнатюк О. А., Шеляг-Сосонко Ю. Р. Лісова рослинність урочища Феофанія та її антропогенна трансформація 51
Нецветов М. В. Морфологические и вибрационные особенности лещины древовидной на границе древостоя

Goncharenko I. V., Ignatjuk O. A., Shelyag-Sosonko Yu. R. Forest vegetation of the Feofania tract and its anthropogenic transformation

 

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The paper studies the syntaxonomic composition of broad-leaved forest vegetation of the Feofania tract (Holosiiv region of Kiev) according to Braun-Blanquet approach and its anthropogenic transformation under the influence of recreation.

In 2013, we fulfilled 44 relevés that were made by the standard procedure and further processed using the program Juice 7.0. The resulting phytocenons were evaluated by phytoindication on edaphic factors, as well as on hemeroby and urbanity indexes. Changes in the cenofloras composition under the anthropogenic influence were studied by phytosociological spectrum method and calculating share of different ecocenological groups of species.

Broad-leaved forests of the Feofania tract (Holosiiv region of Kiev) are represented with one association, Galeobdoloni lutei-Carpinetum Shevchyk et al. 1996 in which a new subassociation has been described that is forming under moderate recreational pressure. Comparative analysis of species composition of phytocenons also allowed to subdivide the subassociation into 3 variants: var. Carex pilosa (on steep slopes at lower soil moisture), var. Dryopterix filix-mas (in the bottom of the slopes and the thalweg), var. Impatiens parviflora (under anthropogenic pressure). Geographical analysis shows that these communities belong the floristically depleted Dnieper type on the eastern boundary of the Carpinion alliance.

In the present paper, we demonstrate alterations in these communities under recreational influence in particular biomorph and ecocenological spectrum changing, as well as the increasing share of anemochorous, zoochorous, and nitrophylous plants, therophytes and invasive species. A fundamental group of the presented antropophytes are kenophytes. Among kenophytes, the most numerous is the North American arealogical group.

Phytoindication analysis demonstrates increasing moisture variability, light, and the content of mineral nitrogen. In the phytosociological spectrum, an increase was noted in the proportion of Molinio-Arrhenateretea species up to 15 % and Artemisietea up to 9 %.

We describe three stages of recreational digression (stage of therophytes, stage of anemochorous plants, stage of invasive species) diagnosed in the studied communities and list the indicator species for each stage, with a number of relatively vulnerable and resistant forest species. In forests herbaceous species are most sensitive to anthropogenic pressure than trees and shrubs. At the same time long-rhizome herbaceous biomorph (most of that species are well-known dominants) more stable than short-rhizome biomorph, spring ephemeroids and ferns.

The last stage of anthropogenic destruction of the forest corresponds to derivatized community com. Ballota nigra + Sambucus nigra. The basic mechanisms of transformation of forest communities are: an increase in species richness, reduction of trees and shrubs canopy, changing in light regime, soil moisture and mineral nitrogen, invasion of meadow and alien species.

Key words: Feofania, Querco-Fagetea, syntaxonomy, recreational digression
 

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Нецветов М. В. Морфологические и вибрационные особенности лещины древовидной на границе древостоя

Netsvetov M. V. Morphological and vibrational features of the Turkish hazel at the stand edge

 

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The arboretum of Donetsk Botanical Garden consists of about 1 000 species and form of arbors and shrubs. Trees of most stands placed at a height of lands in steppe are primary in the zonal and ecological inadequacy with natural conditions. After more than 50 years growing the conditions under crops considerably were changed. As a result of the sylvatic effect steppe herbaceous plants under crops are suppressed. But there are mixed cenomorph observed at the merge of stands because the trees meet with fool steppe condition at the edge. Some morphological and dynamic treats might supposed as markers of the ecotone between steppe and tree stands. The main dynamic characteristics of the trees, i.e. frequency and damping ratio of oscillations, are derivatives from the general morphology, tissues mechanics, and soil type.

The idea of how dynamic characteristics correspond transition from inner part of stand to edges was the main aim of the paper. Thereafter differences of general morphology and vibrational parameters of trees at inner stand and margin are shown at the study. The conditions of the ecotone side of the stand affect on the value and correlations between morphological and vabrational characteristics investigated.

Studying stand consists of 35 age old Corylus colurna tree acclimatized in Donetsk Botanical Garden (48°00′29′′ N, 37°53′17′′E). Primary stand density was 1600 tree per ha until 2007–2008 when one line of Phellodendron amurense tree was cut. This resulted increasing of light intensity under crop but subsequently low wind speed in inner site of the stand in 2009–2010. There were created two experimental groups of trees for studying the effect of wind on their general morphology and vibrational characteristics, 1) trees from the edge and 2) inner site of the stand, and two groups of trees for examination the effect of wind on leaves structure and biomechanics, 1) trees from the edge and 2) from the inner part with the cutting.

The trees from the margin part of the stand differ from the others by several treats. The trunks average height is smaller and the average diameter is greater than in inner part of the stand. The marginal conditions result crown asymmetry, i.e. increasing of mean vector value, and significant crown orientation for grouping data. The anchorage root distribution is bimodal both in the inner and marginal parts of the stand. Into inner part of the stand the mean direction of root primary growth correlates with crown horizontal projection orientation, but at the edge it is shifted toward mean wind direction. This indicates the roots of trees at the edge experience more intensive wind load and acclimatize by means of anchorage distribution around the stem.

The vibrational characteristics which are partially dependent from general morphology are also differing in the margin part of the stand. The frequency and damping ratio have greater value in the first two lines of the stand. At the growth period the dynamic characteristics of trees from edge differ about two times from inner part of the stand. After leaf fall mass of crowns diminish, damping ratio and frequency of stem oscillation increase in both sites. High dynamic characteristics and reduced crown vertical projection both lead to growth of the trees resistance to the wind loads.

There is also studied the leaves structure of trees from two contrasting by mean wind speed condition but same in light intensity. The wind effect consists mainly in petioles shortening and so higher wind resistance to the leaves. At ones petiole diameter growth is account for increasing of related value of collenchymas, i.e. a tissue more flexible and more resistant to the tension force than sclerenchyma. The allometry of leaves is also depends on wind load during their growth and maturing. The length of the petiole gradually falls, and the diameter and stiffness rise with the leaf area in both groups. But slopes of the lines are larger in group of leaves from opened to the wind sites.

Another leaves adaptation to the high speed winds is curling of the blade and same with many other plant species. So the leaves of the turkish hazel keep a stable position during moderate winds and prevent light hit under canopy but with mean wind speed higher ~10 mph they curl and reduce wind pressure on the crowns.

Among examine features the vibrational characteristics, i.e. frequencies and damping ratio, shown the most considerable changes of value and might be use for indicating of marginal zones of stands or ecotone conditions between arbor and herbaceous coenocis. The main results are discussed in the paper.


Key words: tree stand, trunk, crown, asymmetry, vibrations
 

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CONSORT CONNECTION RESEARCH / ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ КОНСОРТИВНИХ ЗВ’ЯЗКІВ

Листопадська О. А., Івашов А. В. Дендрологічний парк «Асканія-Нова» як полігон з вивчення консортивних зв'язків комах-філофагів із представниками роду Quercus L.

Lystopadska O. A., Ivashov A. V. Dendrological Park «Askania-Nova» as a testing ground for the studing of consortative relations of insects-phyllophagous with representatives of Quercus L. genus

 

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Dendrological park «Askania-Nova» is a park of national importance. It is an integral part of the Biosphere reserve «Askania-Nova». The park is located in the Dnieper-Molochnyanske interfluve. The Dendrological park is a scientific station, but the insects in it are very little investigated today. Works of entomologists are discrete in time and various by the objects of the research. The topical problem of today is the diversity of the entomofauna of tree plantations. Studing of consorts-phyllophagous of species-edificators, including representatives of the genus Quercus L., needs particular attention.

The total area of the park is 183,2 ha. It was created gradually. This is the biggest park on artificial irrigation in Ukraine. Irrigation system effectively guarantees the necessary quantity of water for each part of park. This method of irrigation allows to grow in arid conditions the azonal wood vegetation, and even exotic wood. Under such conditions, the majority of species are in a satisfactory state, bear fruit and give it looking like seed. Depending on the year of planting the trees of the park are divided into three parts: the Old Park, the Open Woodland with oak forests, the New Park.

The collection fund of the genus Quercus has 19 species and 7 forms. Most of them are introduced decorative aliens and grow in such functional areas of the park: new and old arboretums, exponential glade, exhibition of rarities and other. Only Q. robur, and its form 'Fastigiata' are widespread through the park. Representatives of these taxa are the main breeds of park type artificial phytocenoses, which form a forest. They protect the park from a strong wind, and also create a new environment. Representatives of a sort of Quercus L. in different parts of the park take from 3 to 39 %.

Knowledge of the species-edificators of ecosystem is a guarantee of stable existence of artificial trees. Moreover, it is important when it comes to the Steppe zone, the biogeocenotic conditions of which do not meet the growth of woody vegetation. Adding a factor of artificial irrigation, it is received not only artificially grown woody plants, but artificially modified climatic conditions on the spatially limited area. This, of course, makes a certain intrigue in the knowledge of consortative relations of woody plants introduced with consorts of different concentres.

So, consortative approach and monitoring of the main structural-functional characteristics of consortiums of woody species of the genus Quercus has a scientific perspective. Insects-phyllophagous – as pests of assimilate part of the consortium determinants, is an important element that is waiting to be studying. Must keep in mind that assimilative organs of plants are the only receipt of energy on the biogeocenosis earth stratum, and they illustrate the status of this process at a certain time interval. The high proportion of the representatives of the genus Quercus L. and relatively high diversity of its forms create new tropho-topical niches for phytophagans, which are not filled completely yet. Just on the leaves of the oaks 61 species of insects-phyllophagous were registered. Consortative relations between insects-phyllophagous and various forms of oaks in the dendrological park remain completely unexplored.

Key words: Quercus, insect-phyllophagous, consorts, dendropark, Askania-Nova
 

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ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF BIOINDICATION / ЕКОЛОГІЧНІ ПРОБЛЕМИ БІОІНДИКАЦІЇ

Глібовицька Н. І., Парпан В. І. Липа серцелиста (Tilia cordata L.) як біоіндикатор стану забруднення урбанізованих територій важкими металами

Glibovytska N. I., Parpan V. I. Small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata L.) as bioindicator of the condition of urbanized areas pollution by heavy metals

 

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The growth of anthropo-technogenic impact on urbanized ecosystems is accompanied by man-made contamination of the environment. Among the most toxic and widespread pollutants of the biosphere an important place belongs to heavy metals. Soil is the main storage medium and a source of heavy metals entering the plants. Accumulation of pollutants leads to dechromation and necrotic leaves lesions, significant disturbances of mineral metabolism and water treatment, inhibition of photosynthetic and growth processes, which causes a decrease in plant productivity.

The presented research reveals the perspectives of small-leaved linden as a bioindicator of the condition of urbanized areas pollution by heavy metals. The regularities of heavy metals distribution in soils of different-functional ecotypes of Ivano-Frankivsk urbanized ecosystem and the pollutants accumulation intensity by small-leaved linden leaves were investigated. In the studied area soils has been an increase in the content of mobile forms of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd compared to the background area. Exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations for soil in urbanized ecosystem was not recorded except for Pb in industrial and roadside ecotypes.

The peculiarities of the soil contamination by pollutants within the investigated area are determined by the nature and intensity of the anthropo-technogenic impact. The "metallic pressure" on soils increases in the next different-functional landscape city zones: the area of the integrated landscaping → the area of the house-building complex → the area of industrial complexes → the area of transport routes.

The heavy metals content in the small-leaved linden leaves in most local ecotypes of the urbanized ecosystem is significantly higher than the background values. The highest concentrations of Pb and Zn are installed in the area of transport routes, Cd and Ni − in the area of industrial complexes, Cu − at a roadside and industrial ecotypes. These results suggest the selective absorption of pollutants by the small-leaved linden leaf plates, which increases in the number: Zn < Ni < Cu < Cd < Pb. The transition rate of heavy metals in the "soil − small-leaved linden leaves " in terms of the city increases in number : Pb < Cd < Zn < Ni < Cu. A close correlation relationships between the level of heavy metal environmental pollution and morphological changes of the types leaf plates were established. According to the growth gradient of the urbotechnogenic loading in the urbanized ecosystem takes place the significant decrease of the biomass, leaves linear parameters of the small-leaved linden and increase of their necrotic damage degree.

The most significant decrease of the types leaf plates is found in the area of transport routes and the area of industrial complexes − by 43 and 41 % compared with the background rate. The length and width of the small-leaved linden leaves within different-functional landscape areas of the city are lower relative to control by an average of 20 %. The leaves weight in small-leaved linden populations is statistically significantly reduced from 1.5 times in the area of integrated landscaping to 2.2 times in the area of transport routes in comparison with the background territory.

Comparative analysis of morphometric parameters of the species leaves showed the varying of their resistance to environmental pollution by heavy metals, which decreases in the series: leaf length → leaf width → leaf area → leaf biomass. Morphometric parameters of the small-leaved linden leaves are in close negative correlation dependence (r ≥ -0,7) with a coefficient of the total soil contamination. An exception is the parameter that characterizes the leaf plate’s necrotic damage degree. Coefficient of linear correlation in this case is 0.88, indicating the close positive relationship.

Given the information content of morphometric parameters of the small-leaved linden leaves and sensitivity of the type to environmental contamination by heavy metals, it is appropriate to use it as a test object in monitoring studies to assess the ecological condition of urbanized and man-transformed environment.

Key words: small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata L.), morphometric parameters, heavy metals, urban environment, bioindication
 

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Рильський О. Ф. Біоіндикація забруднення довкілля важкими металами з використанням пігментосинтезувальних бактерій

Rylskiy A. F. Bioindication of environmental pollution by heavy metals with use the pigment-synthesizing bacteria

 

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The results of researches on influence of heavy metals on pigment-synthesizing bacteria of genera Serratia and Pseudomonas are presented in the paper. Influence p-elements investigated, using water model solutions which contained ions of heavy metals: Pb2+, Al3+, Sn2+ і Te2+ in concentration of 20-1000 mg/dm3. Experiments made with strains of P. aeruginosa MR-2, P. fluorescens MR-12, P. fluorescens var. pseudo-iodinum MR-11, S. marcescens MR-141. All metals block the synthesis of pigments of bacteria on concentration levels below, than to the complete inhibition vital functions of cage. Thus, between the level of blocking of synthesis of pigment and death of cage it is observed a concentration interval is certain.

In researches of influence of d-elements ions with unfilled d-orbitals on the synthesis of pigment in P. of fluorescens var. pseudo-iodinum it was set that is most quickly lost pigment-synthesizing ability under the action of Cr6+. At research of influence of d-metals with the filled d-orbitals of next to last power level on pigment-synthesizing ability of bacteria was established, that two metals Hg and Ag have most inhibition operate on the synthesis of pigments.

The radio-active metals of U (II) and Th (IV) block the synthesis of pigment of prodigiosin on different concentration levels. The synthesis of prodigiosin was blocked uranium for the concentrations of 300–350 mg/dm3, and thorium appeared far a less toxic element and produced on pigment-synthesizing ability the bacteria of inhibition operate only after 850 mg/dm3.

It was set researches, that the concentration level of blocking of synthesis of pigments depends on a concentration the ion of metal and nature the anion of salt of this metal and is from 12,5 % to 40 % depending on culture of bacteria.

At 72-hour cultivation of S. marcescens on nutrient medium with ZnCl2 full blocking of pigment synthesis was observed at concentration of 300 mg/dm3, and growth of culture stopped at concentration of 350–400 mg/dm3. In the presence of ZnSO4 and Zn(NO3)2 salts in a nutrient medium the inhibition of pigment-synthesizing ability of bacterial culture occurs at concentration of 400 and 250 mg/dm3 respectively. Therefore, the difference between the smallest oppressing concentration of 250 mg/dm3 (zinc nitrate) and the greatest 400 mg/dm3 (zinc sulfate) was 37,5 %.

At S. marcescens cultivation with copper salts – CuSO4•6H2O, Cu(NO3)2•3H2O, CuCl2•2H2O – it became clear that the least toxic salt is CuCl2 as in the presence of this salt full blocking of synthesis prodigiosin was observed at concentration of 130 mg/dm3. In the presence of CuSO4 and Cu(NO3)2 salts the synthesis inhibition prodigiosin was observed at concentration of 100 mg/dm3. The difference between least and most toxic salts made 30 %.

Having analysed probable factors which most influence toxicity of these or those metals, and considering reaction of organisms of different evolutionary levels (including pigment-synthesizing bacteria) on metals, we came to a conclusion that for creation of synthetic number of the toxicity close to objective display of their toxic nature, it is necessary to consider such factors: nuclear radiuses of metals, solubility of salts of metals, chelateforming ability, force of binding of metals with proteins of cages, toxicity fishing in relation to pigment-synthesizing ability of bacteria threw, toxicity of metals according to literary data. Counting correlation coefficient between a constructed synthetic number of toxicity of metals and a number of blocking of pigment-synthesizing ability of bacteria, we receive r = 0,56, that confirms high degree of similarity of these numbers, and it, in turn, specifies that a constructed synthetic number of toxicity can be carried to the factors which are objectively displaying degree of toxicity of metals.

The results of experimental researches, works got at implementation, enabled scientifically to ground the mechanisms of blocking of synthesis of pigments of bacteria at influence of heavy metals and experimentally to lead to possibility of the use of pigment-synthesizing bacteria as bioindicators of contamination of natural environment by heavy metals. It was set our researches, that by the effective bioindicators of contamination of environment metals among bacteria is Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Аlcaligenes paradoхus.

Key words: heavy metals, pigment-synthesizing ability, bioindication
 

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METHODOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS / МЕТОДИЧНІ РОЗРОБКИ

 

Мицик Л. П. Показник висоти рослин – у наукових дослідженнях та публікаціях

Mytsyk L. P. Plant height index in the scientific researches and published works

 

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One of the main criteria characterizing plant association or its one individual is a plant height index. It is explained by the fact that the increase or decrease of the plant height leads to all-inclusive changes not only in the overground but also in the underground part of the ecosystem at all levels of living structure. However, despite the importance of the plant height index, its objectivity, availability, convenience for accounting and mathematical treatment of the material, there are certain problems that were not discussed in a well-known literature or were mentioned cursory, without the analysis of the situation.

The first problem is to find out the height of the plant by the existing books of reference. The complication is the different information of the different sources about the same species of the plant. Sometimes the data are very different from each other by their figures.

The second problem is the opposite. In different books of reference there are the same indeces of the plant height, despite the fact that its individuals grow in different to a large degree conditions.

The third problem is connected with the indication of the height of the individuals by one digital quantity in certain books of reference. A rare case would be interpreted as a technical mistake, but such negligence has a wide extension. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss and define the situation, respectively. For instance, in the bulbous plant reference book the height of almost all kinds of Tulipa L. is presented in this way. So it is occurred that the conclusions on each kind were carried out by the one-year study of the one individual only.

The fourth problem is connected with the indication of the minimal height of the plant. In the existing handbooks there are considerable differences of opinions. For instance, it is written 50 sm and 5 sm about the minimal height of the individuals Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski, 30 sm and 7 sm – about Poa pratensis L., etc. The fifth problem is conditioned by the availability of plants, ground creeping stems of which can crawl by the abutment on a significant height, being transformed into the “lianoids” or “pseudolianas”. For instance, the stems of Glechoma hederacea L., with the height of 40–50 sm by the determiner’s data, crawl by the abutment on a height of 176 sm (by the observations of the present article’s author in Carpathians).

The sixth problem is concerned the keys for the definition the species of plants or more exactly for those keys, which use the height index as one of the species indication. For instance, in one of the thesis definition it is said that it includes the plants Poligonum L. with the height of 2–3 metres. But by the same text P. сuspidatum Siebold et Zucc. has a height of 1,5–2,0 m, though it is situated in the branching of the same thesis.

The seventh problem is connected with discordance of Ukrainian names of plant species to their morphological peculiarities and therefore with inconvenience of their use, particularly in teaching process. For instance, by the determiner’s data the Ukrainian name of Sisymbrium altissimum L. – suhorebryk vysoky (S. strictissimum L.). But by the same handbook S. strictissimum L. Is much higher – 50–200 sm.

The eighth problem is conditioned by the discrepancy of the data about the height of the determinate species. It is indicated, for instance, that Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai is «up to 4 m», Cucurbita pepo L. – «to 3–10 m». However, melons and cucurbits in the fields just spread out their shoots on the soil surface. Only rare individuals can crawl on the tree up to 4 metres (as the author could see it of cucurbit).

The ninth problem unites the technical issues by their origin. In the determiner we could read, for example, that the height of Hypericum perforatum L. is 30–160 sm. The height of Cotinus coggygria Scop. in the same determiner, on the contrary, is understarted – 50–60 sm etc.

The determinant of the plant is not just a way of recognition of the taxon, but also the most concise concentrator primarily of its morphological characteristics. Therefore it is necessary to show in it the height of the determined species. The quantitative expression of this criterion must contain 4 numerals. Theoretical guidance for the second and the third numerals can be well-known formula X ± σ, on which 95,4 % (with a "normal" distribution of heights) of characterized plants are covered. The two extreme figures in brackets shall mean the lowest and highest height from the known to the authors of real samples, even if it is a single individual or a rare case. Such restrictive markers are also desirable in other publications of reference type, reports on a new taxon and in other cases related to the morphological description of any plant number.

It is reasonable to show the height of the individuals of monocentric biomorph by measuring the straightened, high situated generative or vegetative organs. For polycentric species the accounting unit is a shoot or partial bush. For the plants that are not lianas, but are capable to raise their creeping stems, using the abutment, it is necessary to show their real (without straightening) height, if they are above their orthotropic units.

Key words: plant height, plant identification guide, methods, forms of life
 

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REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗІЇ

Травлєєв А. П., Білова Н. А. Безцінний енциклопедичний помічник географа, еколога, геоботаніка та природознавця широкого фахового профілю – Руденко В. П. Географія природно-ресурсного потенціалу України / В. П. Руденко. – У 3-х част.: підручн. – Чернівці: Чернівецький нац. ун-т, 2010. – 552 с.

Travleyev A. P., Bilova N. A. A priceless encyclopedical helper for geographer, ecologist, geobotanist and natural scientist of broad occupational profile – Rudenko V. P. Geography of nature-resource potential of Ukraine / V. P. Rudenko. – In three parts: textbook. – Chernivtsi: Chernivtsi National University, 2010. – 552 p.

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Білова Н. А., Зверковський В. М. Шанда В. І. Теоретичні проблеми екології та біогеоценології: монографія / В. І. Шанда; наук. ред. А. П. Травлєєв;Криворізький педагогічний інститут ДВНЗ «КНУ». – Кривий Ріг :
Вид. Р. А. Козлов, 2013. – 247 с.

Bilova N. A., Zverkovsky V. N. Shanda V. I. Theoretical issues of ecology and biogeocenology : monograph / V. I. Shanda; Scientific Editor A. P. Travleyev; Kryvyi Rih Pedagogical Institute SHEE "KNU". – Kryvyi Rih : Publ. R. A. Kozlov, 2013. – 247 p.

 

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