2013, Vol. 24. #1-2

 

 

CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF RESERVED AREAS / ЗБЕРЕЖЕННЯ ТА ОХОРОНА ЗАПОВІДНИХ ТЕРИТОРІЙ

Solodky V. D., Bespalko R. I., Kazimir I.I. Forming the ecological network for Ukrainian Carpathians on principles of Carpathians convention strategy

Солодкий В. Д., Беспалько Р. І. , Казімір І. І. Формування екомережі Українських Карпат на принципах стратегії Карпатської конвенції

 

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For the preservation purpose of valuable and typical components of landscape and biological variety the role of the forests and natural protected territories of the Bukovina Carpathians and Precarpathians in formation of an ecological network of the Carpathian region on the basis of the Carpathian Convention principles is investigated.

The Carpathian Convention plays an outstanding role as the multilateral agreement between Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Serbia, Hungary and Ukraine concerning concentration of joint efforts for preservation, renewal and balanced usage Carpathian region natural resources and also for inconsistencies overcoming of the social, economic and ecological normative and target principles of natural resources management.

Cause-and-effect relations of the forests and reserved territories development as compound structural elements of an econetwork of the region and observance of the principles of a sustainable development are established, in particular:
- multi-purpose forest exploitation with increase of ecologization of production;
- woodiness increasing of the territory;
- biological variety preservation of forest ecosystems;
- steadiness increasing of forest ecosystems to negative environment factors;

The scheme of the structurally functional organization of the harmonization program for an econetwork of the region has been developed.

It has been proved that for implementation of harmonization system of structural and component elements of an econetwork it is necessary to develop at the state level the National Program of an ecological safety of the Carpathian region, where to consider implementation of a complex of nature protection actions. It will give the chance to work productively for realization of the of the Carpathian Convention principles, in particular:
- to improve an ecological situation in the region by adhering control of requirements of the environmental protection legislation by stakeholders;
- to provide the balanced development of productive forces of the region taking into account ecological components, intersector harmonization of the action plans, achievement of the integrated regulation of development of mountain and foothill areas;
- to improve environmental protection by ecological standards implementation of anthropogenous loads regulation of ecosystems, decrease economic influence on environmental risks development.

Formation of the Ukrainian Carpathians econetwork on the basis of the Carpathian Convention principles creates favorable conditions for the organization and maintenance of the balanced environmental management and mountain region development.

Key words: ecological network, Bukovina Carpathians, Carpathian Сonvention, preservation of biodiversity, ecologization of environmental management, balanced development of region
 

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ECOLOGICAL BOTANY / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА БОТАНІКА

Майорова О. Ю., Грицак Л. Р., Пасічник Г. І., Мельник В. М., Дробик Н. М. Стан деяких часткових популяцій Gentiana punctata L. в Українських Карпатах

МаyorovaО. Yu., Hrytsak L. R.,PasichnykG. I., Mel’nykV. М., DrobykN. М. State of some partial populations of Gentiana punctata L. in Ukrainian Carpathians

 

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State of four Gentiana punctata L. partial populations which enter the composition of three various metapopulational organizations of this species has been analyzed. Partial populations of Chornohora and Marmaroshi metapopulations are concentrated in the alpine zone (1800–1900 m a.s.l.). Subpopulations of Svydovets metapopulational organization are located within 1600–1735 m a.s.l. heights of the subalpine zone.

Comparative analysis of phytocoenotic conditions of G. punctata species growth showed that availability of Juniperus sibirica Burgsd.and Vaccinium myrtillum L. is the common feature for all the habitats. Poaceae family representatives (Poa sp., Nardus stricta L. and Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauv) prevailed in the composition of the herbage. It was established that there was a considerable biotic pressing on the species individuals from the direction of prevailing firm bunchgrasses (Tatul and Breskul partial populations) and Juniperus sibirica Burgsd. (Vorozheska partial population).

It was found that all the subpopulations suffered from uncontrolled digging up rhizomes by local people for the needs of alternative medicine, in some habitats negative influence was caused by sheep pasturing (Vorozheska Mt.), excessive recreation (Breskul Mt., Vorozheska Mt., Pip Ivan Mt.) and trampling down (Tatul Mt.). Among the investigated partial populations Vorozheska one underwent the most essential anthropogenic influence.

Partial populations from Breskul (Chornohora metapopulation) and Pip Ivan Marmarosky (Marmarosh metapopulation) mountains were found to be multiple and big by the area, while those from Vorozheska and Tatul (Svydovets metapopulation) mountains are scanty and small by the area. The highest density was found in the subpopulation on the Pip Ivan mountain (7.2 specimens/m2), when in other habitats its value did not exceed 3 specimens/m2.

All the investigated populations were normal complete with left-sided age spectrum, the population peak belonged to virgin plants. The exception was the partial population on the Vorozheska mountain in which juvenile specimens were missing. The share of the generative group species individuals fluctuated within 18–50 %. Subpopulations self-maintenance took place due to generative and vegetative propagation. In two habitats generative origin plants were found to prevail (Pip Ivan Marmarosky Mt., Tatul Mt.), and in two others – vegetative origin ones (Breskul Mt., Vorozheska Mt.). By the index of recovery and "delta-omega” classification Breskul, Pip Ivan and Tatul partial populations belong to young whereas Vorozheska to senescent ones.

Among all the investigated populations Vorozheska partial population is in the most unfavorable conditions of biotic and anthropogenic factors influence that is reflected on its population characteristics. Activation of vegetative propagation among the plants of this partial population is the answer to changes of environment conditions and provides better adaptation to these changes.

Key words: Gentiana punctata L., metapopulational organization, state of partial populations, self-maintenance, self-renewal, phytocoenoticanalysis
 

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ECOLOGICAL ZOOLOGY / ЕКОЛОГІЧНА ЗООЛОГІЯ

Кушинська М. Є., Царик Й. В. Консорти-запилювачі генеративних особин видів роду Gentiana L. на головному Чорногірському хребті Українських Карпат

Kushynska M. E., Tsaryk J. V. Insect-pollinators of generative individuals of Gentian genera on the main Chornohora Chain (Ukrainian Carpathians)

 

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The research of insect-pollinators of generative individuals of species was carried out on the northern and southern slope of the main ridge of the Chornohora Ukrainian Carpathians in the range of heights of 1211–1970 meters above sea level, in 24 places growth of five entomophile plant species of the genus Gentiana L.: G. acaulis L., G. lutea L., G. asclepiadea L., G. punctata L. and G. laciniata Kit. ex Kanitz. In the same places it was installed the isolators from pollinators and studied the ambulatory monitoring of insect activity.

Based on the data it is found that there are 29 species of insects of Gentiana plant pollinators, mostly it is Diptera (6–11 species), the second place belongs to Hymenoptera (5–8 species).

A number of other consort-pollinators depends on the type of gentian: for G. laciniata, G. acaulis – 10 species, G. lutea – up to 11, and for G. asclepiadea and G. punctata up to 13. The total number of species of insect-pollinators: G. lutea – 29, G. asclepiadea, G. punctata, G. acaulis to 26, G. laciniata – 19 species of insects.

As a result of studies of the daily dynamics of pollen plants of Gentiana it is found that insects which are most active during the day can be seen from 10 to 15 hours. At this time the activity of the Apidae, Muscidae and Syrphidae family is observed. In the evening, the gentian pollination is increased by participation of Coleoptera, Formicidae, Lepidoptera families, and the pollination of G. asclepiadea attended by representatives of the Vespidae family.

Insect activity also differs by hypsometric levels. Areas of G. asclepiadea compared with other species are at lower altitudes because their habitats occur in subalpine forest belt and the Ukrainian Carpathians. The greatest diversity of insect-pollinators are represented at the experimental area 5 (1405 m above sea level), which is located on the northern macroslope of Chornohora mountain chain. Here there are 10 families of insects, 18 species of 125 individuals. Unlike other species of gentian on the parts of G. asclepiadea occurring species: Maculina arion, Avtographa gamma, Vespula sp. For the quantity of caught insects the area 1 is dominated (1214 m above sea level).

To confirm the importance and necessity for the viability of pollinators’ populations of gentian the experiments were conducted on isolated clusters of biotic agents of pollination. The experiments with isolation of G. lutea, G. punctata and G. acaulis florets show close relationship of this species with the biotic agents of pollination. It is found that isolation of pollinator clusters leads to loss of 98% productivity. Despite the fact that during the normal season isolated shoots have shaped flowers (full petals, stamens with anthers, carpels), they form only 2–3 % of potential seeds. Isolation of generative sphere of gentian results in significantly reduced seed harvest of the species.


Key words: insect-pollinators, gentian, Ukrainian Carpathians, Chornohora mountain chain
 

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Задира С. В., Борісов Ю. М., Лукашов Д. В. Сезонна динаміка морфофізіологічних параметрів жовтогорлої миші в умовах техногенного забруднення довкілля важкими металами

Zadyra S. V., Borisov Yu. M., Lukashоv D. V. Seasonal dynamics of morphological physiological indexes of yellow-necked mouse under conditions of environmental technogenic pollution by heavy metals

 

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The presented research involves the integral assessment of morphological-physiological indexes of nature populations of mice in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP. It is topical to clarify specific mechanisms of influence of a large plant (e.g. thermoelectric power station) that is situated in dense populated region in the environment. Small mammals are the most convenient objects for such investigations as long as they are animals that inhabit transformed ecosystems directly near with human. Via short life cycle forest rodents have time to reflect the impact of environment on their organism. The goal of the research is definition of basic morphological-physiological indicators in an organism of the yellow-necked mouseunder conditions of environmental pollution by heavy metals.

On distance of 500 m to the South-West from Tripillya Thermal Power Plant (TPP) (Obuchiv district, Kyiv region, Ukraine) the raised content in soils of mobile forms Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co was revealed that considerably (3–5 times) exceeds levels for territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve (Cherkassy region, Ukraine). Territory of National Nature Park «Holosiivsky» (Kyiv, Ukraine) characterized by rather increased content of active form of investigated heavy metals especially Pb. While analyzing the content of heavy metals in yellow-necked mouse’s liver on investigated territories was detected the insignificant increase of content of Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn in region of impact of Tripillya TPP. So the heavy metals are accumulating in yellow-necked mouse’s liver from population in region of Tripillya TPP impact. It probably may cause physiological disturbance in organism.

Seasonal dynamics of morphological-physiological indexes of the individuals (males and females) yellow-necked mouse has been revealed. Thus exceeding the levels of maximum permissible concentrations for soil was not detected in investigated territories but morphological-physiological features of disturbance in organism of bank yellow-necked mouse from the natural populations were observed. Conformity of chemical composition of soils to the maximum permissible concentrations was not conforms to condition of prosperity of animal organism existence of which was concerned with paedosphere. Therefore it may conclude about absolute content of heavy metals in soil is not a marker of ecological conditions of environment. The registered morphological-physiological differences in autumn testify about presence of generalized changes in an organism of the mice as a result of processes of metabolism intensification with exhausting features. The registered changes of morphological-physiological indicators can be an indicator of ecological-physiological stress in an organism of the yellow-necked mouse in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP.

Key words: heavy metals, morphological-physiologicalindexes, yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), pollution
 

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FOREST BIOGEOCENOLOGY / ЛІСОВА БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ

Горбань В. А. Еколого-фізичні властивості імпульверизаційно-ґрунтового матеріалу лісових культурбіогеоценозів Присамар’я Дніпровського

Gorban V. A. Ecological and physical properties of impulverization and soil material of forest artificial biogeocenoses of Prysamarya Dniprovske

 

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In the article the relationship between impulverization (at G. N. Vysotsky) and wind erosion of soil in the steppe zone is examined. General propositions of the impulverizatsion and soil material formation in the forest-steppe artificial biogeocenoses are presented.

The analysis of the environmental and physical properties (grain-size composition, general physical, physical-mechanical, water-physical and thermal-physical properties) of impulverization deposits and buried soils has been performed. These properties cause significantly the expression of their main ecological functions.

The studied sediments of impulverization material and buried forest-improved chernozem differ in sandy-loam and lightly loamy grain-size composition (physical clay content is 15–32 %), which indicate their positive growth conditions, since all the other physical properties depend precisely on the grain-size composition. Statistical processing of the results of the grain-size composition study (assessment of mean difference using the Student's test and evaluation of the relationship of the sample variance using the Fisher's test) indicates that the deposition of the impulverization material of different power does not lead to significant changes of size composition in the buried soil. Single-factor dispersion analysis use has revealed a difference of buried soils with deposits of various capacities on grain-size composition. The power of influence of impulverization-soil deposits of various capacities is 58 %.

Impulverization and soil material is characterized by minimal values of density (1.03 g/cm3) and the maximal values of porosity (55.3 %) compared to the buried soils, which provides the formation of favorable conditions for the development of aerobic soil microorganisms. Soil deposits are characterized by lower values of density of the solid phase compared with the buried soils. Soil material has a more favorable physical and mechanical properties compared to the buried soils, which appears in smaller quantities of stickiness, connection and resistance to compression. This creates favourable conditions for the formation of the root system of higher plants (phytocenosis).

Impulverization deposits are characterized by higher values of maximum hygroscopic moisture content (7.3 %) and wilting point (11 %) relative to the buried soils. At the same time, the soil material is characterized by high values of field water capacity (50.5 %) and a range of active moisture content (39.8 %), which ensures the formation of considerable productive reserves available to plants humidity. This also contributes to increased water permeability values, whereby the runoff transfers in depth.

The impulverization-soil material characteristic for increment ofthermal diffusivity values (2,699∙10-7 m2/s), thermal conductivity values (0.342 J/(m•s∙K)), and lower values of the specific heat (1.073 MJ/(m3•K)) compared with buried soils. This accounts for differences in their grain-size composition and for characteristics of the distribution of organic matter in the steppe soil profile.

As a result of the research it can be concluded that the impulverization and soil material is characterized by more favorable environmental and physical properties compared to the buried soils of forest artificial biogeocenosis.

Key words: ecological and physical properties, impulverization and soil material, buried soils, forest artificial biogeocenosis
 

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Власенко Н. О. Штучні ліси Чалівського лісового масиву зеленої зони м. Полтави (еколого-біологічна характеристика)

Vlasenko N. O. Chalivskiy artificial forests located in the range of Poltava-city green belt (ecological and biological characteristics)

 

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Сarrying out its assignment Chalivskiy forest area has significant anthropogenic impact, needs constant research of forest range modern condition. There have been done the complex research of Chalivskiy artificial forests, which are located in the range of Poltava-city green belt. Forest types according to O. L. Belgard have been noted. Ecological and biological characteristics, soil sections macromorphological peculiarities have been given, results of soil water extracts analysis in the investigated forestry have been noted.

Artificial forest vegetations are like peculiar phytocenosis of cultured plants where herbage is formed naturally only in the process of edificated influence of woody and bushy layer made by human being on the back of certain forest growth conditions. Special place belongs to scientific researches of biogeocoensis of cultured plants biodiversity and their ecological meaning. These researches allow to learn existent forest vegetations, their modern conditions and ecological peculiarities. Creation activities of new forest vegetations are forecasted on the typological principles of O. L. Belgard.

Total area of modern designated forest land of Poltava region is 19,3 thousand hectares and forest resources of Poltava-city are 270,8 hectares. Poltava region forest cover is 15,5 % and Poltava-city forest cover is 2,6 % according to statistics of Poltava State Forestry Committee. This is three times below normal than V.V. Dokuchaev represented in his researches of forest-steppe and steppe landscape of Poltava guvernorate at the end of XIX century. More than 62 % of Poltava region forests are artificially created and need enhanced care.

Poltava-city green belt is created by city cultured vegetations and suburban forests of artificial and natural origin, in particular Chalivskiy Forestry. Forest area of Chalivskiy Forestry is situated in the forest-steppe belt of Left bank of the Dniper (eastern soil and climatic forest-steppe zone) inside the Dnipro and Donetsk dimple. Chalivskiy forest area is related to Chalivskiy Forestry subjected to Poltava State Forestry Committee. It is situated in Poltava district of Poltava region. Chalivskiy forest area consists of 112 squares with a total area of 4195 hectares. Most typical forest area is oak and pine forest that grows on the river valley terrace.

Analysis of Chalivskity forest area gave opportunity to clear up two types of artificial forest vegetation: pine forest with mesoxerophytic herbs and green birch forest with aise-weed. It was found out that forest growth conditions type of phytocenosis is sand loam (SM) and green sand loam (GS).

According to morphological characteristics different soil variations have been investigated. Water extracts analysis tell about the lack of salinity properties; dry particles ranges (0,05–0,13 %); PH is mainly alkaline. Analysis of water extract qualitative composition told that among determined anions big quantity is sulfate ions. Their content in soil sections varies between 0.57 and 1.71 mg in 100 gr. of soil. Hydrocarbonate ions are contained in amounts of 0.12–0.40 mg in 100 gr of soil. Chloride ions are found in amount of 0.06–0.11 mg in 100 gr of soil. Calcium prevails among cations that varies between 0.25–0.92 mg. in 100 gr of soil in sections. Almost all soil layers have traces of magnesium (0.33–0.40 mg. in 100 gr of soil). Natrium and kalium are contained in amount of 0.05–0.77 mg in 100 gr of soil. Carbonates are absent in soil of Chalivskiy forest area.

Soils have high absorbing capacity, favourable water, air, heat peculiarities, considerable store of ready soluble nutrient salts, especially nitrogen; humus content is 4–6 %. Soil is forest-meadow, chernozem-like, medium-humus, sabulous. Chernizem soils have been formed on the ancient alluvial deposits of argillo-arenaceous and sandy loam mechanic composition on pine-forest terrace under the natural oak plantations as well as on the left bank of the river Vorskla and its feeder (Orchik river) under pine-trees. Humus content is 7,5 %.

Detailed ecological and biological characteristics and establishing peculiarities of Chalivskiy forest range adaphotop will give opportunity to reconstruct existing Poltava-city green belt plantations and organize their stationary investigations with the aim of their more rational employment and saving

Key words: forest typology, macromorphological peculiarities, chemical characteristics, Chalivskiy forest area
 

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LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY / ЛАНДШАФТНА ЕКОЛОГІЯ

Жуков А. В., Кунах О. Н., Задорожная Г. А., Андрусевич Е. В. Ландшафтная экология как основа пространственного анализа продуктивности агроценозов

ZhukovA. V., KunahO. N., ZadorozhnajaG. A., AndrusevichЕ. V. Landscape ecology as a basis of the spatial analysis of agrocoenosis productivity

 

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The conception of the elementary landscape processes has been applied as keystone paradigm in investigation of agriculture production in space in time. The combination of field information collection with remote sensing data has been shown as synergic effect method to explain landscape level variation of phytomass.

There are two approaches to points sampling interpolation in digital cartography. The first one is based on territorial autocorrelation model. The second one is based on soil-landscape connection. According to the first approach modeled property value in point may be predicted by means of autocorrelation function.

A considerable density of the sampling points has to be reached for geostatistic modeling. Land biomass estimation is necessary to study production, carbon turnover, nutrient distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Remote sensing data propose opportunity for properties estimation in annual dynamic on the different spatial levels. The application of the concept of landscape ecology and data of remote sensing of the earth has allowed to estimate spatio-temporal dynamics of an agrocoenosis vegetative cover. Investigation has been carried out in 2012.

Plant biomass production process following vegetation period of the two neighborhood fields have been studied. Fields are distinguished by the agriculture practices. Organic agriculture applied in the one filed and intensive agriculture applied in another. Landsat derived NDVI index has been used as measure of phytomass in the fields. The factor effecting on spatial heterogeneity of phytomass has been shown as impotent issue to understand yield formation mechanisms. Obtained information analysis process has been divided into to main phase: statistical and geostatistical. Statistical approach lets to compare NDVI variability in time taking in consideration two fields as a hole objects. Fields have been found as characterized by similar total temporal vegetation dynamics.

ANOVA revealed that NDVI values are considerable different in the two fields studied. Geostatistic analysis lets to compare NDVI spatial patterns within both fields. It is established that the major feature of spatial variability of phytomass in agrocoenosis at natural and conventional systems of agriculture is the increase in a role of a trend and local autocorrelation at seasonal increase in phytomass which is displayed by means of NDVI.

These results are an obvious spatial consequence the Libich law of limiting factor. With increase in phytomass in the course of vegetation factors of the various nature and different scale level in a most degrees make the limiting impact. Studying the nature of factors which define a spatial trend and local autocorrelation is perspective. As a hypothesis it is possible to come out with an assumption, that the general trend of variability of phytomass is defined by relief, and local variability of edaphic properties is defined by spatial autocorrelation.

Key words: landscape ecology, remote sensing, vegetative index
 

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DISCUSSIONS / ДИСКУСІЇ

Bachinsky P. P. The ways of ecological education in Ukraine

Бачинський П. П. Шляхи виховання екологічної культури в Україні

 

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Outstanding ecologists of USA, such as E. Odum and J. Hatshinson, mark the important role of V. I. Vernadsky's ideas for understanding the modern problems of Ecology (Hatshinson, 1970; Odum, 1971). It was recognized, that "the concept of biosphere, which we accept now, is mainly based on V. I. Vernadsky's ideas" (Hatshinson, 1970). In searches of an optimum path of development of human society V. I. Vernadsky pinned all hopes on scientific organization of mankind activity under condition of the high moral responsibility of the scientists for the consequences of realization of their discoveries.

In his book "Sketches and speeches" published in 1922 V. I. Vernadsky wrote: "The time is not far off when a man will receive in his hands an atomic energy ... Will a man be able to take advantage of this force, to direct it to good, instead of to self-destruction? Has he grown enough skill to use this force, which inevitably should be given to him by science? The scientists must not shut their eyes to the possible consequences of their scientific activity, scientific process. They should feel themselves responsible for the consequences of their discoveries. They should connect their activity with the best organization of all mankind" (Vernadsky, 1922).

The founder of cybernetics, Norbert Wiener wrote: "Many of us do not realize that the last four years are a specific period in the world history. The speed at which the changes occurred over the years, has no resemblance to past history. Such is the case with the very nature of these changes ... We are so radically altered our environment, now to be in this environment, we must change ourselves» (Wiener, 1950).

By decision of the Club of Rome in 1970 started the project "The Predicament of mankind", which was performed and the results presented March 13, 1972, in Washington in SmithsonInstitute (Meadows, 1972). Scientific processing of information collected allowed to offer 12 models of possible ways of development of world civilization and some conclusions of which are given only the first and the last: 1. "We are convinced, that the comprehension of the quantitative limitations of capabilities of the ambient natural medium and the tragic consequences of the excess of their marginal level is a necessary starting-point for the appearence of the new forms of thinking, which will lead to the substantial revision of the existing patterns of human behaviour and, as a corollary, of the whole nowaday social order". 10. "And, at last, we confirm, that any realized attempt to reach a reasonable and long-term condition of equilibrium by the implementation of preliminary planned measures should in the long run be guided by radical changes of the system of values and purposes at individual, national and world levels. This change, is probably, already wandering in the air, though it can be hardly sensed. But our traditions, education, current activity and the shaped interests complicate and decelerate such transition" (Soros, 1991, 1994). But the main environmental problems of the country to decide on its own, and one of the solutions is focused in the development of a new concept of educational technology environmental education of pupils and students. The task is not a simple in connection with the fact that in the modern system of education there is a significant mismatch between technology education and the real needs of society.

Over the scientific and methodological support to overcome the said discrepancy worked special committee of UNESCO, which was commissioned to create an effective educational model for the twenty-first century, the century of acclaimed education. As referenced model one of the priorities identified environmental education (Lutay, 1998).

As suggested by this report the concept of environmental protection under the new educational technologies of environmental education, which is based on system-position. First position – to enter the list of courses compulsory component of public secondary school education and educational discipline in environmental education. Only under such conditions can be realized social order to implement the priorities of Sustainable environmental Ukraine, especially in view of the need to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster – man-made catastrophe of global scale, which was the result of lack of environmental consciousness and ecological awareness being raised from the school years and even before. The second position – it refers to the technology of environmental education in secondary and in higher education. At the present stage of technology interdisciplinary environmental education is "without rudder and without sails": the so-called ecologization of teaching different disciplines, the need of which have been a lot of talk and no one controls and no educational-methodical structure in each school is not responsible for the coordination and quality of environmental education of the individual. With the new technology will be established on the basis of compulsory education and educational courses on environmental education education teaching center of ecological culture, teachers who not only teach their discipline, but also to coordinate the implementation of the environmental component in teaching other subjects, being responsible for the quality of environmental education and education of pupils (students) in their schools. Third position – according to the new concept must be brought into conformity title educative discipline of environmental education with the primary purpose of environmental education, which is important both in methodology and in methodological terms.

Key words: education, culture, environmental problems, Ukraine
 

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Корж А. П. Емкость среды: развитие понятия и его содержание

Korzh A. P. Development of concepts of carrying capacity

 

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The concept of carrying capacity has been proposed as far back as the 30-th of the twentieth century by A. Leopold and is actively developed in the framework of environmental management. It is believed that the size of the population, wherein the rate of growth is equal to zero, is the capacity of the medium (K) which is determined by the available resources. When the population reaches a size corresponding to the capacity of the environment, it’s needs in resources become equal to the speed of their renewal. That is, the capacity of the environment may be imagined as a certain set of resources necessary for the organisms.

Apparently, the capacity of the environment could be considered in a dense environment link with other terms – ecological niche and adaptation. Adaptation is a set of adaptive characteristics of a certain type, which allows it to take up the definite ecological niche. Capacity of environment may be regarded as the limit of the adaptive features, realization within an ecological niche.

If ecological niche can be considered as a functional place of the species in the ecosystem, defined by its biotic potential and by a set of environmental factors to which it is fitted, the carrying capacity is a proof of the species, ability to the realization of the biotic potential in these conditions. That is, the capacity of the environment can be a qualitative characteristic of the ecological niche, realization of the relevant organisms – it can be regarded as a kind of species, «security». The existing capacity of the environment accomplishes a specific pressure on the relevant group of organisms that may in some way limit the different manifestations of life. The formation of the capacity of environment for the same species may be performed in different ways.

This pressure may cause not only the limiting but also a stimulating effect and in particular for the implementation of the biotic potential. Examples include the increased fertility under the heavy load of the beast of prey or under active using, behavior change, etc.

Even in a completely controlled by a human artificial environment a concept of capacity is necessary. The success of the species breeding in artificial conditions is directly related to the human imagination about the totality of the limiting factors that cause the formation of the carrying capacity of this group of organisms in vitro. Inconsistency to real needs of organisms even of some determining factors can lead to disastrous consequences.

For any kind the carrying capacity of environment is determined by the combined action of many limiting factors, some of which, depending on the conditions, occur decisive. It the capacity of the environment is filled to a maximum a large part of individuals is in a state of vulnerability as a result of any possible adverse effects that a sharp decrease of their number. Seasonal (temporary) carrying capacity allow periodically increase the number of this group of organisms for a limited time (season), then the excess animals is doomed to an extinction or migration.

Key words: carrying capacity, adaptation, ecological niche, vulnerability, limiting factor, human impact
 

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Буянов П. М. К вопросу о концепции управления лесным хозяйством Украины

Bujanov P. M. On the issue of Ukrainian forest management concept

 

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A radical reform of economic management is currently implemented in Ukraine. The essence of the reform is the general democratization of the management, empowerment and responsibility of enterprises, the transition from administrative to economic methods of management.

The starting point for the restructuring of the economic mechanism is a transfer of all enterprises to full cost accounting and self-financing. At the expense of their earnings, they should not only cover the running costs of production, but also to provide contributions to the budget. In the transition to full cost accounting and self-financing the income of forestry enterprise can be formed from the following gainings: – budget appropriations for forest management activities of national importance under contracts with higher governments; – payments for the use of forest resources coming from the enterprises of other sectors of the economy (forest taxes and rents); – revenue from growing plants for special purposes under contracts with other companies and organizations; – the sale of products obtained during the forestry activities (planting stock, seeds, wood from felling, etc.); – the sale of wood from the major harvest, wood processing products, a subsidiary agriculture, side forest use; – vindictive damages caused to forestry by lawbreakers.

In consideration of today's reality the functions of forestry departments and ministries must be radically changed. Their main task is to form a government order, to bring to the enterprise economic standards of the income distribution, enter into business contracts for complements government orders and monitor the results of their activities. Benchmarks, which are controlled by the Ministry of Forestry and its management, in our view, can be: – the maximum volume of principle and intermediate forest use; – optimal renewal time after felling by economically valuable species; – the maximum period of transfer of young growth in forested land; – the species composition of saplings at the age of 20 years; – the maximum amount of dead wood and natural wood waste for 1 ha of forested lands; – an average density and species composition of coming ripe and mature stands. – the damage caused by forest fires to forest resources. – cadastral (economic) evaluation of forests.

The organization of self-financing on the basis of horizontal links of businesses with forest users with orientation on the industry development is a very challenging problem. The main difficulty is a legislative solution to the issue of charging for the main types of forest use and direction of these payments not in the budget, but directly to enterprises. It will also need to enter adjustments to the basics of the forest legislation of Ukraine, the instructions for the forest management, other legislative and regulatory documents. Solution of these problems will increase the intensity and quality of forest management, the volume of forest exploitation, to improve habitat-forming properties of the forest industry, to strengthen the economy of the branch, enhance its role and importance in the social division of labor

Key words: concept, management, forestry
 

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REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗІЇ

Травлєєв А. П., Котович О. В. Євтушенко М. Ю. Акліматизація гідробіонтів / М. Ю. Євтушенко, С. В. Дудник, Ю. А. Глєбова. – К. : Аграрна освіта, 2011. – 240 с. 111

Travleyev A. P., Kotovich O. V. Yevtushenko M. Yu. Acclimatization of hydrobionts / M. Yu. Yevtushenko, S. V. Dudnik, Yu. A. Glebova. – Kyiv: Agrarian Education, 2011. – 240 p. 111

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