2014, Vol. 25. #1-2

 

 

THEORETICAL ISSUES OF ECOLOGY AND NOOSPHEROLOGY / ТЕОРЕТИЧНІ ПИТАННЯ ЕКОЛОГІЇ ТА НООСФЕРОЛОГІЇ


Празукин А. В.
Иерархическая соподчиненность биокосных фитосистем и их параметрическое описание

Prazukin A. V. Hierarchy and parametric representation of bio-inert phytosystems

DOI: 10.15421/031401

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The paper outlines methods that can be successfully used to describe, in universally accepted terms, the structures and functions of bio-inert phytosystems widely differing in organization and origin. It offers an integrative comprehensive model of the biosphere's autotrophic block where the autotrophic function of the phytosphere cannot be satisfactorily exercised except through the unity of the inert (Geo) and the living (Bio) components. Also, it represents the types and physico-geometrical axiomatics of hierarchically structured bio-inert phytosystems.

The paper suggests that all bio-inert phytosystems, for the purpose of discussion, should be divided into two groups: corporeal and supra-corporeal with the latter being further classed into biogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic (technogenic). The corporeal systems embrace plants as viewed in terms of their bodily shape. Physico-geometrically, any plant body represents a certain volume of space (Vn) which incorporates a living mass (W) with a specific gravity of . The quantity Vn is known in biology as biovolume while its numerical value is calculated with the formula: Vn = W/. Spatially, the plant body (Gn) contains the plant tissue per se (VT) and large-sized cavities filled either with water (VWAT) or gases (VGAS): Vn = VT + VWAT + VGGAS.

Due to its arrangement, any plant body protrudes partially into the surrounding space (VCOS, COS – the closest operating space) with the outer boundary (Gn+1) following the ultimate outlines of the plant's structural elements. This is the space where an organism's impact on the flows of matter, energy and information exceeds that of other organisms or is superior to external flows of substance and energy. That's how the biogenic supra-corporeal system works. Just like corporeal systems do, it holds a certain volume of space (Vn+1, ecovolume), the limits of which (Gn+1) house the plant's bodily mass (Wn) with an appropriate volume (Vn) and, if the object in question is aquatic, it is water – with all dissolved and suspended substances in it – which occupies the entire volume of the surrounding space: Vn+1 =Vn + VCOS.

The living space of anthropogenic phytosystems is organized by man who predetermines the proportion between the area to be colonized and the living area. Having colonized artificial underwater reef structures, the plants designate the frontiers in the surrounding space (Vn+2) within which (Gn+2) plant bodies (Vn), bearing parts of reef structures (VBP) and water (VWAT) are located including dissolved and suspended substances. In other words, these reef structures is precisely the place where the canopy is developed thus determining the external borders of the phytosystem and its volume: V n+2 = Vn + VBP + VWAT.

The living space of geogenic phytosystems is dictated by the geomorphology of the Earth. The plants colonize the Earth's waters (Vn+3, Vn+4), from small puddles to the oceans, including the Earth's recesses and wrinkles (Vn+k =Vn + VWAT, Vn+k =Vn + VGAS). The hierarchical sequence of bio-inert systems, from organism-level organization up to the bio-inert system of a reservoir or island, can be represented by a multitude of living spaces varying in size and enclosed consecutively into one another: Vn  Vn+1  Vn+2  Vn+3  Vn+4  Vn+5. "Habitable" means colonized (captured) by the living substance. The density of the living substance filling the space (W/V = CW ) correlates with the density of local free energy flows. The amount of the living substance (W) contained in any volume of space (V) is just as great as the power of the flow of free energy admits of. The living substance, of necessity, keeps the substance flows permanently renewed and increases their yield by accelerating their stock turnover.

Key words: Phytosystems, phytohierarchy, parametric description
 

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BIOGEOCENOLOGY, PHYTOCENOLOGY AND GEOBOTANY / БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ, ФІТОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ ТА ГЕОБОТАНІКА


Глібовицька Н. І., Парпан В. І.
Метаболічні особливості адаптації липи серцелистої (Tilia cordata Mill.) в умовах урбосередовища

Glibovytska N. I., Parpan V. I. The metabolic characteristics of small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) adaptation under urbanized environment conditions

DOI: 10.15421/031402

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The increase of anthropogenic pollution in urboecosystem leads to degradation of woody vegetation that adversely affects the functioning of the protective green space. The impact of anthropogenic loading is shown by change of a series of physiological and biochemical processes and the formation of adaptive mechanisms in plants. The ability of plants to respond appropriately to external stimuli is a necessary condition of their existence and adaptation to environmental conditions. Metabolic reorganization in plant cells that occur in response to exogenous pollutants plays a major role in determining their resistance to adverse factors. As the body adapts within genetically inherited norms reactions, its ability to withstand fluctuations in environmental factors is determined by individual ecological potency.

One of the most sensitive species to anthropogenic pollution is small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.), which is widely presented in dendroflora of Ukraine cities. Analysis of the species metabolic characteristics in terms of urbanized environment and the assessment of the prospects of identified changes using in practice bioindication research is the goal of this work. One of the central components of plant metabolism is protein metabolism. In terms of all local ecotypes of the studied urboecosystem a statistically significant change in the content of total nitrogen and protein in small-leaved linden leaf plates to control was observed. Reducing the concentration of total nitrogen and protein in species leaves is in accordance with the degree of urbotechnogenic pressure enhancement in the next different-functional landscape city zones: the area of the integrated landscaping → the area of the house-building complex → the area of transport routes → the area of industrial complexes.

Carbohydrate metabolism in plants under stressful conditions changes towards accumulation of soluble sugars, which takes place in local ecotypes of Ivano-Frankivsk urboecosystem. The content of the above-mentioned substances in lime leaves increases from 4.6 % in the area of integrated landscaping to 23.8 % in the area of industrial complexes, compared to the background territory. The content of mineral elements in Tilia cordata leaves within the city ranges from 119 mg/g in the area of the integrated landscaping up to 159 mg/g in the area of industrial complexes, respectively, 1.5–2 times higher than the figure on the background area. Fall of starch concentration in the small-leaved leaves is in accordance with the level of anthropogenic impact intensification in the local city ecotypes, ranging from 1.2 times in the area of integrated landscaping to 1.6 times in the area of industrial complexes. Reducing the polysaccharide amount in plant’s assimilation organs is caused by inhibition of photosynthesis and the activity of enzymes that control its metabolism.

In terms of urboecosystem the close correlation relationships were set between the vast majority of the analyzed organic and mineral components of small-leaved linden leaves. The presence of water-soluble carbohydrates in leaves significantly correlated directly proportional with the content of mineral elements and inversely proportional to the number of nitrogenous compounds and polysaccharides. Accumulation of ash by lime leaves adversely affects the synthesis of proteins, starch and cellulose accumulation and stimulates the formation of lipids, which clearly reflects environmental urbotechnogenic pressure and formation of defensive reactions in plants. Nitrogenous compounds are formed in close direct connection with polysaccharides and at the same time have an inverse correlation with the parameters of the fat-like substances content in the species leaf plates. Positive dependence was found between the cellulose and starch content in assimilative organs, accurate feedback was established between the synthesis of starch and lipids. Fat-like compounds metabolism is associated by weak positive relationship with the content of water soluble carbohydrates in leaves, but is not correlated with cellulose tissues content.

Given the informative content of the main parameters of mineral and organic components of Tilia cordata leaves and species sensitivity to anthropogenic pollution, it is rational to use it as bioindicator in assessing the ecological condition of urbanized territories.

Key words: Tilia cordata Mill., metabolic characteristics, adaptation, urbanized environment, bioindication
 

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Орлова Л. Д. Опад лучних фітоценозів Лівобережного Лісостепу України

Orlova L. D. Downfall of meadow plants communities on the Left Bank Forest-Steppe Boundary in Ukraine

DOI: 10.15421/031403

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The research was carried out on the different types of grassland plant communities on the left-bank forest boundary in Ukraine. It was established that the supplies of downfall on the floodplaine meadows were within 37,3–1973,7 g/m2, upland medows – 21,8–627,3 g/m2, lowland medows – 70,0–1363,0 g/m2. The results of the research made it possible to identify three groups of indicators on the amount of downfalls. The first group consists of the areas with such amount of dawnfall as – 80.0 g/m2, the second one – 80,0–160,0 g/m2, and the third one – more than 160.0 g/m2.

The change rate which depends on the part of the floodplain medows was considered. In the riverine area it was defined in the range of 31,8–663,6 g/m2, in the central area – 41,8–1973,7 g/m2, in the pre-terrace area – 37,3–1654,6 g/m2. The difference among minimal parameters is small but among maximum is significant. It is generally accepted that the results of the research are mainly supported by specific differences of floristic composition. The larger number of indicators (within the second group) are in the central parts of the investigated floodplains and rivers. In the central areas in general, there was a higher level of dry matter content. Combined with the increasing amount of downfall, to some extent, it is considered to be an indicator of higher crop level in this area.

It was figured out that in some areas the upland meadows have got different number of the investigated indicators. The most important factors for this issue are the lower parts of the area but the minimum are the tops of the slopes. The difference can be quite significant. The comparison between the formation of downfall in the upland grasslands and the steppe area showed a certain regularity. In steppe areas the accumulation of the indicator was nearly one third less than the average one in the investigated meadows. The number of dry matter varied in the range of 31,8–95,7 %. The lower indicators as well as the upper ones differed in general not more than 10,0 %. In general the amount of dry matter content was the highest on the top of the slopes ant the lowest amount was on the bottom.

In the overwhelming majority of surveyed lowland there was an increasing level of accumulation in the second and third groups.The comparison of the results about the accumulation of the downfall in the lowland meadows in the studied forest-steppe and steppe regions of Ukraine, which borders on the South, showed that its accumulation in the steppe regions was much less comparatively to the surveyed regions. Dry matter content of the downfall of this grassland areas was in the range of 31,9–94,4 %. We found that the energy storage of downfall meadow plant communities of the region is in the range of 0,4 × 106–37,1 × 106 Dzh/m2. Each type of medows has its own specific characteristics of the index and indicators. Thus, energy storage on the floodplaine was within 0,6 × 106–37,1 × 106 Dzh/m2, upland 0,4 × 106–12,1 × 106 Dzh/m2, lowland meadows – 1,3 × 106–25,7 × 106 Dzh/m2. Indicators of lowland meadows occupy an intermediate position between floodplain and upland areas. The comparison of borderline indicators allows us to see that they vary greatly both upper and lower. Minimal indicators are differe for 0,2 × 106–0,7 × 106 Dzh/m2 and maximum 7,3 × 106–16,1 × 106 Dzh /m2.

The reduction of economic activity, in particular, the implementation of conservation as for all investigated meadow plant communities of the region leads to increasing amount of downfall in average. Weather conditions influences greatly the accumulation of the downfall. The analysis of climat map which was presented, shows us more favourable weather conditions during particular years. That is why the maximum storage of downfall was observed during this period.

Key words: downfall, storage, meadow plant communities, forest-steppe boundary of the Left Bank of Ukraine
 

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Савосько В. М. Динаміка екоморфічного та біоморфічного спектрів дендрофлори колишнього Ботанічного саду Криворізького державного педагогічного інституту

Savosko V. M. The dynamics of the dendroflora ecomorphic and biomorphic spectra at the former Botanic garden of the Kryvyi Rih state educational institute

DOI: 10.15421/031404

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The aim of the work is to identify the features of the temporal dynamics of the ecomorphic and biomorphic spectra at the former Botanic Garden of the Kryvyi Rih State Educational Institute.

It was found that on 01.10. 2011 in the plantations of the former Botanical Garden 47 species of trees, shrubs and lianas had grown. In the composition of the dendroflora only five species of gymnosperms and 42 species of angiosperms had been revealed. Leading families were Rosaceae, Fabaceae and Salicaceae and Aceraceae. The dominant genera were Acer and Populus. For the last 40 years, 99 species, 46 genera and 10 families from the collection had been dropped out. At the same time, the Botanical Garden was the only habitat of unique species such as Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Celtis australis, Securinega suffruticosa, Cercis siliquastrum, Indigofera gerardiana, Kerria japonica, Koelreuteria paniculata, Xanthoceras sorbifolium, Schisandra chinensis. At present the scientific collections in our region are lacking in these species.

Since that time, the dendroflora’s trofomorphic spectrum of the former Botanical Garden had undergone some changes. The first thing to note is an increase in the proportion of mehatrophes: from 15.5 % in 1966 – up to 25.5 % in 2006 (1.6 times). At the same time the total proportion of olihotrophes and olihomezotrophes had been reduced: from 26.4 % in 1966 to 14.9 % in 2006 (1.8 times). Despite the lack of a clear trend towards changing the proportion of mezotrophes, they are consistently the most common woody plants of the Botanic Gardens.

Age-related changes of the dendroflora’s hygromorphic spectrum of the former Botanical Garden have such directions: the proportion of xerophytes decreased in 1.9 times and mezohygrophytes in 2.4 times. However, there has been an increase in the relative number of mezophytes (1.1 times), mezokserophytes (1.2 times) and hygromezophytes (1.6 times).

Over the time the dendroflora’s heliomorhic spectrum had the following changes from the former Botanical Garden: despite the decrease in the proportion of heliophytes (from 58.8 % in 1966 to 53.2 % in 2006), they remained the largest group of the spectrum. At the same time it was revealed an increase of scioheliophytes in 1.4 times, and overall reduction of heliosciophytes and sciophytes in the number and proportion.

In the plantations of the Botanic Gardens it has been established a tendency of the introduced species reduction and of the native species increase. However, this has not changed the overall pattern – the dominance of the introduced species, both trees and shrubs.

On the whole the conditions of the region are the most adapted for megatrophes plants, mesophytes and heliophytes and trees. The basis of the collection consists of introduced species from the Atlantic-North American, East Asian and Tsimkumboreal floristic regions.

Key words: dendroflora, ecomorphic spectrum, Kryvyi Rih region
 

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Крохмаль И. И. Эколого-функциональная морфология листа видов рода Aquilegia L.

Krokhmal I. I.Ecological and functional leaf morphology of species of the genus Aquilegia L.

DOI: 10.15421/031405

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The functional leaf morphology of 13 species and one subspecies of the genus Aquilegia L. was studied in the steppe zone of Ukraine: A. oxysepala Trautv. & C. A. Mey. var. kansuensis Brune, A. buergeriana Sieb. et Zucc., A. flabellata Sieb.et Zucc., A. aurea Janka, A. nigricans Baumg., A. pyrenaica DC., A. canadensis L., A. skinneri Hook., A. chaplinii Standley ex Paysch., A. alpina L., A. einseleana F.W. Schultz, A. sibirica Lam., A. olympica Boiss.

There are some common features in all investigated species of this genus introduced in the steppe of Ukraine: 1) a higher leaf indentation (Iz) and correlation of fresh weight to leaf area (m/S) related to increase in the total solar radiation in June, annual precipitation (Is), the sum of temperatures above 10 °C and the duration of period with temperature above 5 °C; 2) higher correlation of fresh and dry weight (m2/m) in the species from dry habitats; 3) higher correlation of fresh leaf weight to petiole length (m/Lp) in the species from warmer habitats; 4) higher correlation of leaf area to petiole length (S/Lp) related to decrease in the total solar radiation in June; 5) higher correlation of leaf petiole length to its diameter (Lp/dp) related to the increase of annual precipitation variation and duration of the period with temperature above 15 °C in their natural habitats. The correlation of dry leaf weight to its area (m2/S) is characterized by the same correspondences as m/S, except for solar radiation.

There are significant differences in some parameters in North-American alpine forest species as the steppe climate of Ukraine is much more dry and cold than that of their natural habitats. This causes the adaptive morphologic modification of the leaf. We observe a higher leaf indentation, correlation of fresh weight (m/S) and dry weight (m2/S) to leaf area, correlation of fresh leaf weight to petiole length (m/Lp) in North-American alpine forest species in comparison to highland sub-alpine and lowland forest species of Eurasian origin.

The correlation of the leaf area to petiole length (S/Lp) and correlation of fresh and dry weight (m2/m) is higher in the group of subalpine species. The correlation of leaf area to petiole length (S/Lp) is higher in alpine forest species. Highland and lowland forest species are characterized by increase of leaf blade indentation (Iz), a smaller leaf area (S) related to increase in the total solar radiation in June in their natural habitats. They are also characterized by increase in a length of petiole (Lp) and a lower m2/m, related to increase of the difference in annual precipitation and evaporation. Sub-alpine and alpine forest species are characterized in a region of introduction by increase of leaf blade indentation (Iz) and the correlation of fresh weight to leaf area (m/S) related to increased annual precipitation evaporation. Such parameters as Iz, m/S and m2/S are higher in subalpine and alpine forest species from warmer habitats.

We have identified the following morphological leaf features which provide its normal functioning in the changing growth conditions: indented edge of the leaf blade, a sufficient accumulation of plastic substances (m2/S) – it is higher in the species from warmer regions with high evaporation. Leaves of the species from warmer regions accumulate more water. The species from warmer regions and warm regions with high evaporation are the most adapted to steppe conditions of Ukraine

Key words: Tilia cordata functional leaf morphology, Aquilegia L. species, introduction, the steppe zone of Ukraine, climatic factors of natural habitats
 

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ZOOCENOSES AS A COMPONENT OF BIOGEOCENOSIS /ЗООЦЕНОЗ ЯК КОМПОНЕНТ БІОГЕОЦЕНОЗУ


Monchenko V. I., Gaponova L. P., Alekseev V. R.
Identification of sibling species in the genus Eucyclops from water-bodies of Ukraine and Russia using crossbreeding studies

Монченко В. І., Гапонова Л. П., Алексєєв В. Р. Виявлення видів-двійників в роді Eucyclops із водойм України та Росії шляхом гібридологічного аналізу

DOI: 10.15421/031406

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Crossbreeding experiments were used to estimate cryptic species in water bodies of Ukraine and Russia because the most useful criterion in species independence is reproductive isolation. The problem of cryptic species in the genus Eucyclops was examined using interpopulation crosses of populations collected from Baltic Sea basin (pond of Strelka river basin) and Black Sea basin (water-reservoires of Dnieper, Dniester and Danube rivers basins).

The results of reciprocal crosses in Eucyclops serrulatus-group are shown that E. serrulatus from different populations but from water bodies belonging to the same river basin crossed each others successfully. The interpopulation crosses of E. serrulatus populations collected from different river basins (Dnipro, Danube and Dniester river basins) were sterile. In this group of experiments we assigned evidence of sterility to four categories: 1) incomplete copulation or absence of copulation; 2) nonviable eggs; 3) absence of egg membranes or egg sacs 4) empty egg membranes. These crossbreeding studies suggest the presence of cryptic species in the E. serrulatus inhabiting ecologically different populations in many parts of its range.

The same crossbreeding experiments were carries out between Eucyclops serrulatus and morphological similar species – Eucyclops macruroides from Baltic and Black Sea basins. The reciprocal crossings between these two species were sterile. Thus taxonomic heterogeneity among species of genus Eucyclops lower in E. macruroides than in E. serrulatus.

The interpopulation crosses of E. macruroides populations collected from distant part of range were fertile. These crossbreeding studies suggest that E. macruroides species complex was evaluated as more stable than E. serrulatus species complex.

Key words: crossbreeding, reproductive isolation, Eucyclops, cryptic species
 

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Харченко Л. П., Лыкова И. А. Литоральные беспозвоночные в питании куликов на миграционных остановках в Азово-Черноморском регионе

Kharchenko L. P., Lykova I. A. Littoral invertebrates in waders’ nutrition at migratory stopover sites in the Azov and Black Sea region

DOI: 10.15421/031407

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Seasonal migration for birds – distant migrants are the most energy intensive. Fat reserves accumulated in the bird’s body before migration and during migratory stopovers determine success of the long-distance flight. Lipids play a vital role both as a source of energy and as structural components of cell membranes. For most migrants to the speed and quality processes fat accumulation affects the feed ration in the field of migration stops. Fodder saturation with essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is of great importance. Being paramount for physiological processes, these acids cannot be synthesized in the bird’s body. The proposed article is dedicated to the study of waders’ trophic relationships with their prey items, and the use of PUFAs as biochemical markers. This approach is based on the specificity of the fatty acids contained in the lipids of invertebrate to be used as food bird species studied. Significant amount NPZHK waders obtained from forage that can be considered PUFAs as biochemical markers to determine the range and diversity of food producing birds PUFAs ways, and also to study the food chain in ecosystems. A fatty acid spectrum (FAS) of the lipids common for nine littoral invertebrate species (Gammarus aequicauda, Idotea balthica, Artemia salina, Nerеis sp., Nerеis zonata, Theodoxces astrachanicus, Hydrobia acuta, Chironomus salinarius, Chironomus plumosus), which constitute the main component of waders’ diet at the migratory stopover sites in the Azov and Black Sea region, has been studied.

Found that the largest amount of total lipids contained in Nereis zonata (4,6 %) and Artemia salina (4,4 %), the lowest amount of total lipids was observed in Chironomus (1,5–1,8 %), which implies that polychaete worms and Artemia salina, as a source of fat, are the most productive for waders.

Our research has found that mollusks, polychaete worms, and Artemia salina are the most effective waders’ fodder in the PUFAs content. Mollusks contain the largest amount of PUFAs, their spectrum is ω3 and ω6 PUFAs, especially arаchidonic acid C20:4. Polychate worms are also characterized by a high PUFAs level; they serve for birds as a source of linolenic and linoleic acid groups. Artemia salina contains a large amount of eicosapentaenoic С20:5ω3 and docosahexaenoic С22:6ω3 acids, which getting to an organism of birds, participating in the formation of cell membranes, act as thermal stabilizer lipid bilayers, enhance stamina during long-distance flight. A high abundance of Artemia salina in the feeding areas permit tundra waders to use them as a prey item, which can fulfill the bird’s body with a required amount of fatty acids in a short time.

We have established an influence of some environmental factors, as water temperature and salinity, on the lipids FAS of littoral invertebrates. Spectrum analysis of polyene fatty acids in the lipids closely related species of invertebrates living in different salinity water showed that the content of PUFAs in the lipid depend on their food spectrum, and the environmental conditions. Therefore, anthropogenic pressure and changes of water hydrological regime may affect PUFAs content in the lipids of littoral invertebrates. In its turn, this factor may change alimentary behavior and migratory strategy of the birds, which use migratory stopover sites in the region in question.

Shallow waters of the Azov-Black Sea region are characterized by different climatic characteristics and a large reserve of phytoplankton. This explains the mass character species studied of invertebrates to feeding areas and their use as basic prey items, many species of waders.

Key words: littoral invertebrates, migratory stopovers, waders, fatty acid composition of lipids, essential fatty acids
 

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Babálová M., Štrbová E. Influence of grasslands management on diversity of the diurnal butterflies of Vlkolínec Village (Central Slovakia)

Бабалова M., Штробова Е. Агрогенний вплив на біологічне різноманіття денних метеликів в околицях Влколінця (Центральна Словаччина)

DOI: 10.15421/031408

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During 2011–2012, the research of diurnal butterfly communities in ten study sites under different management measures in the vicinity of the village of Vlkolínec was performed. The village of Vlkolínec is located in the northern part of Central Slovakia in the buffer zone of the Veľká Fatra National Park. Abandoned meadows and fallows are prevailing in the study area, thus, traditional management is gradually disappearing, which results in ecosystems changing and decline of biodiversity. Adults were recorded by the modified transect method (Erhardt, 1985) in the following types of habitats: extensive and intensive pasture, old fallow lands of various successional stages and fallow lands exploited by mulching. Shannon-Weaver index of diversity (H) and equitability (e) were used for estimation of the quantitative and qualitative structure of the butterfly assemblages. To study the impact of anthropogenic factor (mulching, pasture and abandonment) on the butterfly diversity multivariable statistical methods (CANOCO 4.5 software) were used. Summarily, 2314 individuals of 63 species were sampled. The most of species were classified into the Nymphalidae family. During two-year research the highest values for number of species and diversity indices were recorded in the grasslands of late successional stages and extensive pastures. The highest number of grassland indicators and protected species, such as Limenitis populi, Melitaea aurelia, M. diamina, Polyommatus bellargus, P. daphnis, P. thersites, Thymelicus acteon and two European important species Phengaris arion and P. rebeli, were recorded in those habitats.

Intensification of landscape leads to sterile grasslands, which are the unsuitable habitats for butterflies, and the main reason of negative effect of intensive grazing is a change of vegetation structure, which is the factor most of stenotopic butterflies are negatively correlated with. Extensive management has a positive impact on the assemblages of daily butterflies and landscape biodiversity, as the RDA analysis has shown for some of the localities studied where we found positive correlation of many specialized and indicator species (such as Pyrgus malvae, Polyommatus dorylas, P. thersites, P. bellargus, Melitaea aurelia). The RDA analysis has also indicated positive impact of succession on the butterfly diversity.

Our results prove that intensive management, such as long-term mulching and intensive pasture, has negative impact on the abundance and structure of butterfly assemblages. Extensive pastures and old fallow lands represent important habitats of the country, however, their importance is often overlooked

Key words: grassland management, diurnal butterflies, Central Slovakia, extensive pasture, biodiversity
 

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FOREST BIOGEOCENOLOGY / ЛІСОВА БІОГЕОЦЕНОЛОГІЯ

Буянов П. М. Экологические проблемы облесения песчаных территорий юга Украины

Bujanov P. M. Ecological problems of sandy area afforestation in the south of Ukraine

DOI: 10.15421/031409

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The town of Oleshky, renamed as Tsiurupinsk in 1928, is located in the Kherson region of Ukraine, near the railway station Tsiurupinsk. The Nizhnyodniprovsky Research Station "Afforestation of sands and viticulture" is located here. The total area of forest fund in Kherson region is 221.7 thousand hectares. The percentage of forest land is 3.3 %. 45 thousand hectares of this area belong to Tiurupinsk forest. The tree composition involves 74 % of coniferous and 26 % of deciduous breeds. 62 % of Cherson forests were created by man.

The pine forests on the Oleshkovsky (Nizhnyodniprovsky) sands were created in the middle of the XIX сentury. This was dictated by the urgent task of fixing the sands by the black storms, using the fertility of sands in forest managment and agriculture. Completely joining the authors of papers devoted Oleshkovsky sands, their afforestation, recreation, conservation and management of the southern pine forest complexes, we consider important to mention:

• in harsh growing conditions of pine trees it is extremely necessary to strive for a complex biogeocenological research, to a comprehensive in-depth knowledge of pine ecosystems, at which typological approach is obligatory not from the standpoint of common assessments of forest growth conditions, but using typological principles of Professor A. L. Belgard established for the conditions of geographical and often environmental inadequacy of forest to habitat conditions;

• the typology provides diversity of soil types of Oleshkovsky forest growth conditions where there are two variants of soils – with and without salinity, with different gradations of humidification – from very dry to wet soils;

• it is necessary to take into account the extent of the influence of planted forests on the environment, which depends primarily on the ecological forest structure, which refers to the light structure of the stands and the duration of their habitat transforming influence. Light structure, in its turn depends on the architectonics of the tree crowns forming part of the forest (Belgard, 1971);
• using the special equipment it is necessary to create or improve the network of hydrological monitoring wells covering all environmental profiles, catens and plots, to conduct large-scale monitoring studies of the cyclic and successional forms of dynamics of forest hydrology: groundwater level, the chemistry, radioecology, organic matter, biota and also flow direction of groundwater movement (hydraulically interconnected), their degree of contamination, sanitary toxicological and other features;

• to explore sandy soils for content and quality of humus to evaluate soil fertility (Orlov, 1981);

• to explore microclimatic regimes to identify critical data to the vitality of pine plantations;

• with all indicators of systematic characteristics of a pine (Pinus silvestris L.), it has about 100 species. In the culture of Ukraine there are about 35 species. But, as foresters observe, not every pine (Pinus silvestris L.). gives a good effect of growth and development in every kind of environmental ecotope. It is necessary to consider the differences between hereditary traits of burned 350 years old samples of the eternal pinewood in Samarsky forest and artificial pine plantations grown from seed material taken from a completely different habitat conditions. Oak acorns, collected in the floodplain of River Dniester and planted in the watershed of Gyrnetsovy forest in Moldavia, dieback at the age of 30 years, but oak acorns, collected in plakor conditions and landed next to the first, have high vitality, intensive growth and development. It is well known that the Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) and Cretaceous pine (Pinus cretacea) do not differ in systematics. But Scots pine planted on chalk mountains near Scots pine are different. The first pine does not give seed regeneration, and the second one has acquired the ability to reproduce itself easily on Cretaceous and to hоld on barren rock outcrops (Milkov, 1959);

• in the study of sandy habitats it is necessary to establish consort links in biogeocenoses, their horizontal and vertical structures, ecomorphic features of the forest, its age population type, and as a result - to establish the viability and sustainability of pine plantations to the conditions;

• finally, it should be emphasized that only a comprehensive and integrated approach to the study of forest ecosystems in the steppe (horizontal and vertical structure) can give a reliable information about the successfully constructed plantation, its stability and durability.

Key words: Oleshkovsky sands, afforestation, typology, rational use, restoration
 

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Tarakhkalo I. A.
Seasonal dynamics of climatic indices as one of the manifestation factors of pyrogenic phenomena on the territory of Lugansk region

Тарахкало І. O. Сезонна динаміка кліматичних показників як один з факторів виникнення пірогенних явищ на території Луганщини

DOI: 10.15421/031410

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The analysis on the effects of pyrogenic Lugansk region for the period from 2001 to 2005 was conducted using the service «FIRMS». Established seasonal dynamics of pyrogenic phenomena and specific influence of climatic factors on the pyrogenic effects in the Luhansk region

Key words: pyrogenic succession, local thermal anomalies
 

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ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCIENCE / ЕКОЛОГІЧНЕ ҐРУНТОЗНАВСТВО

Нікорич В. А., Шиманський В. Fe-Mn новоутворення в ґрунтах та їх геохімічна роль (аналітичний огляд)

Nikorych V. A., Szymański W. Fe-Mn pedofeatures in soils and their geochemical role (analytical review)

DOI: 10.15421/031411

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Based on the analysis of literature data, the genesis, distribution, morphology, composition and properties of Fe-Mn pedofeatures (mainly nodules and concretions), taking into account their unique geochemical role, review of general scientific information was done.

Terminology and classification problems concerning pedofeatures of this type were shown. The need for difference of concepts between ‘nodules’ and ‘concretion’ was highlighted. The morphological and physical properties of Fe-Mn pedofeatures (shape, color, size, and consistence), depending on soil conditions, were discussed. Additionaly, mineralogical composition of Fe-Mn pedofeatures including determination of mineral prevalence were shown. The role of nodules and concretions in accumulation of macro- and microelements was analyzed.

The possibility of using the enrichment factor (EF), which is calculated as the ratio of elements in pedofeatures to the elements in corresponding soil material for evaluation their geochemical role was studied. The possible manner and mechanisms of accumulation of elements in the discussed Fe-Mn pedofeatures were shown. Moreover, the possibility of the Fe-Mn pedofeatures to accumulation of heavy metals was discussed. The possibility allows us to consider them as the main natural material that is able to control the dynamics of pollutants in the soil environment.

Key words: Fe-Mn pedofeatures, nodules, concretions, ortsteins
 

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THE EFFECT OF ALLELOPATHICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON PLANTS / ВПЛИВ АЛЕЛОПАТИЧНО АКТИВНИХ РЕЧОВИН НА РОСЛИНИ

 

Грахов В. П., Дзюба О. І., Елланська Н. Е., Заіменко Н. В., Павлюченко Н. А., Харитонова І. П. Сучасні світові досягнення в дослідженнях з алелопатії

Grakhov V. P., Dzjuba O. I., Ellanska N. E., Zaimenko N. V., Pavliuchenko N. A.,Kharytonova I. P. Current world achievements in allelopathy researches

DOI: 10.15421/031412

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Since the idea of the allelopathy emerged the numerous works contributed to the formulation of the notional base in this area of knowledge.

In the present review the large number of the novel allelopathical methods and approaches, developed for several recent decades, are analyzed. Furthermore various opinions on the subject, the forms, the mechanisms and the symptoms of the allelopathy are compared. The interdependence between the notions of ‘allelopathy’, ‘competition’ and ‘interference’ is discovered. The separate attention is paid to a) the principles of the realization of allelopathic interactions; b) the peculiarities in the approaches to the organization of the investigations; c) the significance of edaphic factor; d) the mediated influence of allelochemicals through the medium, where plants grow; e) the concept of the two-phases respond of the bioobjects – the hormesis and to some other interesting respects in the interpretation of the allelopathic phenomena. The controversial points of view on the possibility of synergism in the allelopathy are described.

The great piece of the allelopathical works was focused on various aspects of release and chemical identification allelochemicals during the recent decades. Also the phytocenotical manifestations of the allelopathy were widely researched. The relationships of the plants-edificators with their subordinate species are reviewed. These papers mostly pertained to the extrusions of the native flora by the alien species. In some cases this entails the profound transformations of the ecosystems. Because such phenomena pose a risk, the control of the invasive flora involves the considerable costs. It gives the idea that of the edaphic factor considerably takes part in the development of the allelopathic processes (especially, soil biota, mycorhizzal fungi, free-living microorganisms, moisture and humus). They can strongly modify the character and intensity of the allelochemical-induced effects. The roles of both mycorrhiza and free-living microflora in the development of the allelopathic processes are discussed. The first of them often is regarded as the target and the canal of the alleviated transport for the allelochemicals, and the second one – as the sink for them. Particularly the common mycorhizza network is analyzed as the factor of the facilitation of the allelochemical transport between the plants (even if they belong to different species). Some researches are devoted the fungi as the target for the allelochemicals impact.

The essential research direction in the recent decade was the determination of the precise chemical mechanisms, causing the allelopathy. It was comprehensively shown by the example with cathechin. The action of this substance was studied in the biophysical, cell-biological and physiological points of view. Some papers testify the stimulatory and other – the depressive effect of catechin.

It appears that the degree of the soil toxicity can vary in the result of the habitat alternation of the same allelopathic donor-species. The temperature factor plays the similar role for the effect of the putative allelochemicals. The current ideas about the probable mechanisms of plant adaptation to the allelopathical stresses are presented.

Key words: allelopathy, synecology, allelochemicals, model investigation, microsymbionts, metabolite.
 

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DISCUSSIONS / ДИСКУСІЇ

 

Гриб И. В. Концепция локального взрыва в пресноводных экосистемах

Gryb I. V. The concept of local explosion in freshwater ecosystems

DOI: 10.15421/031413

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The concept of an explosion in freshwater ecosystems as a result of the release of accumulated energy, accompanied by the destruction of the steady climax successions of hydrocenoses is presented. The typification of local explosions as well as methods for assessing their risk during the development of river basins are shown.

The change in atmospheric circulation, impaired phases of the hydrological regime of rivers, increasing the average temperature of the planet, including in Polesie to 0,6 ºC, deforestation leads to concentration and release of huge amounts of unmanaged terrestrial energy, which manifests itself in the form of disasters and emergencies.

Hydroecological explosion is formed as a result of multifactorial external influence (natural and anthropogenic) on the water body in a certain period of time. Moreover, its level at wastewater discharge depends on the mass of recycled impurities and behaved processing capacity of the reservoir, and the mass of dumped on biocides and the possibility of the water flow to their dilution and to the utilization of non-toxic concentrations.

In all these cases the preservation of "centers of life" in the tributaries of the first order – local fish reproduction areas contributed to ecosystem recovery, and the entire ecosystem has evolved from equilibrium to non-equilibrium with further restructuring after the explosion and environmental transition to a new trophic level. It means that hydroecological explosion can be researched as the logical course of development of living matter in abiotic environmental conditions, ending abruptly with the formation of new species composition cenoses and new bio-productivity.

The buffer capacity of the water environment is reduced due to re-development and anthropic transformation of geobiocenoses of river basins, which leads to a weakening of life resistance. This applies particularly to the southern industrial regions of Ukraine, located in the arid zone that is even more relevant in the context of increased average temperature due to the greenhouse effect, as well as to Polesie (Western, Central and Chernihiv), had been exposed to large-scale drainage of 60-80th years, which contributed to the degradation of peatlands and fitostroma.

Imposing the western trace of emissions from the Chernobyl accident to these areas had created the conditions of prolonged hydroecological explosion in an intense process of aging water bodies, especially lakes, change in species composition of fish fauna and the occurrence of neoplasms at the organismal level.

Under these conditions, for the existence of man and the environment the vitaukta should be strengthened, i.e. buffer resistance and capacitance the aquatic environment, bioefficiency on the one hand and balanced using the energy deposited - on the other. This will restore the functioning of ecosystems "channel-floodplain", "riverbed-lake", reducing the energy load on the aquatic environment.

Hydroecological explosions of natural origin can not be considered a pathology – it is a jump process of natural selection of species of biota. Another thing, if they are of anthropogenic origin and if the magnitude of such an impact is on the power of geological factors.

Hydroecological explosions can be regarded as a manifestation of environmental wars that consciously or unconsciously, human society is waging against themselves and their kind in the river basins, so prevention of entropy increase in the aquatic environment and the prevention of hydroecological explosions is a matter of human survival. While the man - is not the final link in the development of living matter, it can develop without him, as matter is eternal, and the forms of its existence are different.

Key words: hydroecological explosion, water environment, succession
 

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REVIEWS / РЕЦЕНЗІЇ

 

Травлеев А. П., Белова Н. А.  Книга, посвященная популяциям редких видов растений – Злобин Ю. А., Скляр В. Г., Клименко А. А. Популяции редких видов растений, теоретические основы и  методика изучения. – Сумы : Университетская книга, 2013. – 440 с.

Travleyev A. P., Bilova N. A. The book dedicated to the populations of rare plant species – Zlobin Yu. A., Sklyar V. G., Klimenko A. A. Populations of rare species of plants, theoretical principles and methods of the study. – Sumy : University Book, 2013. – 440 p.

DOI: 10.15421/031414

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The presence of numerous publications on populations is explained by the exceptional value of this branch of knowledge for understanding of the structural and functional organization of wildlife, natural resource exploitation, management and conservation of them for future generations.

A short list of scientific directions in the study of the role and place of a population shows that in the scientific literature there are no studies of rare plant species populations, development of theoretical principles and methodology of their study. The experienced team of the Botany Department of Sumy National Agrarian University has started this work.

Not regard to the objective of comparison and disclosure of several publications on this topic, you must immediately emphasize its originality, depth of knowledge of the problem, innovation, and the importance and need for conservation of biological diversity of vegetation, which is often in a state of crisis and requires urgent measures to save it. The book was published by the editorship of the well-known biogeocenologist and ecologist, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of Ukraine Julian A. Zlobin together with well-known scientists in the filed of ecology and biogeocenology of Yu. A. Zlobin scientific school Victoria G. Sklar and Anna A. Klimenko.

Structurally, the monograph consists of thirteen chapters, conclusion, bibliography and applications. A special place is occupied by the section "Methodological blocks", which is a kind of satellite for each section and which equip the reader with modern methodological approaches to complex problems solution of the population structure of the plant world. Here the authors examine the current level of rare species research organization, complexity and pivotal scientific idea, which is an organizing and centripetal force of varied complex research. There are four scenarios, which aim the saving, restoration, protection and rational use of the planet's vegetation.

The book summarizes the collective work for one of the most important problems of modern biological science - conservation of rare plant species. Helpful tips for the organization of similar research in scientific institutions, biogeocenological stations by well-organized scientifically based plan at the level of the modern achievements of environmental science are given. In general, we believe that the reviewed scientific work of Yu. A. Zlobin, V. G. Sklar, A. A. Klimenko "Populations of rare species of plants, theoretical principles and methods of the study" is a major contribution to the scientific literature on ecological populations of rare species, their functions, complex relationship in vegetation cover. It will undoubtedly find a positive response in the wide circles of geobotanists, ecologists, biogeocenologists in our country and abroad.

Key words: populations, rare plant species, biodiversity conservation, theoretical principles, methods of the study.
 

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